Friday, April 30, 2010

Sloths & jitterbugging heart & earth & dive foraging

marine sloth
outhouse sloth

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layers of the heart
rotary venticular blood flow & torsion of heart muscle similar to VE jitterbug transform, with opposing heart muscle groups (123 45 678) :
article
Note pic 14, similar to tao/dau symbol or rolling surf wave, and general similar form of heart to a marine snail, which filter feeds and breathes by pumping seawater through gills and gut tissue.

"Pettigrew14 performed careful dissection of the heart of mammals and man, demonstrating 7 muscle layers. The three outer layers spiral with an increasing angle from the perpendicular, while the fourth layer is horizontal. The three inner layers spiral in the opposite direction, increasing toward the vertical. The layers are arranged in opposition so that 1 opposes 7, 2 opposes 6, and 3 opposes 5, with the fourth layer being a connecting layer (tensional frame?)."

jitterbug

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6,000 year old human artifacts contains indications of 3/4 protein from marine diet

Quantitative evaluation of marine protein contribution in ancient diets
based on nitrogen isotope ratios of individual amino acids in bone collagen:
An investigation at the Kitakogane Jomon site
YI Naito, NV Honch, Y Chikaraishi, N Ohkouchi, M Yoneda 2010 AJPA

Nitrogen stable isotopes analysis of individual bone collagen amino acids
was applied to archeological samples as a new tool for assessing the
composition of ancient human diets and calibrating radiocarbon dates. We
used this technique to investigate human and faunal samples from the
Kitakogane shell midden in Hokkaido, Japan (5,300-6,000 cal BP). Using
compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids, we
aimed to estimate i) the quantitative contribution of marine and terrestrial
protein to the human diet, and ii) the mean trophic level (TL) from which
dietary protein was derived from marine ecosystems. Data were interpreted
with reference to the amino acid trophic level (TLAA) model, which uses
empirical amino acid 15N from modern marine fauna to construct mathematical
equations that predict the trophic position of organisms. The TLAA model
produced realistic TL estimates for the Kitakogane marine animals. However,
this model was not appropriate for the interpretation of human amino acid
15N, as dietary protein is derived from both marine and terrestrial
environments. Hence, we developed a series of relevant equations that
considered the consumption of dietary resources from both ecosystems. Using
these equations, the mean percentage of marine protein in the Kitakogane
human diet was estimated to be 74%.
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Diaphragmatic contractions pump oxygen to the brain during hypoxia, increasing the cerebral blood flow volume. Involuntary breathing movements improve cerebral o... [J Appl Physiol. 2009] - PubMed result

We investigated whether the involuntary breathing movements (IBM) during the struggle phase of breath holding, together with peripheral vasoconstriction and progressive hypercapnia, have a positive effect in maintaining cerebral blood volume. The central hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation, brain regional oxyhemoglobin (bHbO(2)), deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin changes and IBM were monitored during maximal dry breath holds in eight elite divers. The frequency of IBM increased (by approximately 100%), and their duration decreased ( approximately 30%), toward the end of the struggle phase, whereas the amplitude was unchanged (compared with the beginning of the struggle phase). In all subjects, a consistent increase in brain regional deoxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin was also found during struggle phase, whereas bHbO(2) changed biphasically: it initially increased until the middle of the struggle phase, with the subsequent relative decline at the end of the breath hold. Mean arterial pressure was elevated during the struggle phase, although there was no further rise in the peripheral resistance, suggesting unchanged peripheral vasoconstriction and implying the beneficial influence of the IBM on the cardiac output recovery (primarily by restoration of the stroke volume). The IBM-induced short-lasting, sudden increases in mean arterial pressure were followed by similar oscillations in bHbO(2). These results suggest that an increase in the cerebral blood volume observed during the struggle phase of dry apnea is most likely caused by the IBM at the time of the hypercapnia-induced cerebral vasodilatation and peripheral vasoconstriction.
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Levant 800ka - (Hula/Jordan, fire, food prep) African Rift drought
doi 10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.03.007
The paleoclimate of the Eastern Mediterranean during the transition from
early to mid Pleistocene (900 to 700 ka) based on marine and non-marine
records: an integrated overview
Ahuva Almogi-Labin 2010 JHE

Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin
evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last
phase (900­700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant
and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records.
During the MPT the global climate system shifted from a linear 41 k.yr. into
a highly non-linear 100 k.yr. system, considerably changing its global
modulation. Northeast Africa aridity further intensified around 950 ka, as
indicated by a sharp increase in dust flux, and a jump to overall higher
levels thereafter, coinciding with a lack of sapropels in the deep eastern
Mediterranean (930­690 ka). The increased dust flux centering at 800 ka
corresponds to the minima in 400 k.yr. eccentricity, a minima in 65 °N solar
forcing and in the weakest African monsoon precession periodicity. This
resulted in expansion of hyper-arid conditions across North Africa, the
lowest lake levels in eastern Africa and the lowest rainfall in the Nile
River headwaters. In the eastern Mediterranean an increasing continental
signature is seen in glacial stages 22 (880 ka) and 20 (800 ka). Lower
arboreal pollen values also indicate arid conditions during these glacial
stages. The southern and eastern parts of the Negev Desert, unlike its
northern part, were hyper-arid during the MPT, making them highly
unsustainable. The fluctuations in the stands of Lake Amora follow global
climate variability but were more moderate than those of its last glacial
Lake Lisan successor. In the northern Jordan-Valley Hula Lake, frequent
fluctuations in lake level coincide with both global climate changes and
minor changes in water salinity varying from fresh to oligohaline. It
appears therefore that the most pronounced and widespread deterioration in
climate occurred in northeast Africa from 900 to 700 ka, whereas in the
Levant the corresponding climatic changes were more moderate.
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Warmbloodedness & respiration in dinosaurs and mammoths

A Clarke & H-O Poertner 2010 Biol.Rev.PRESS
Temperature, metabolic power, and the evolution of endothermy

Endothermy has evolved at least twice, in the precursors to modern mammals
and birds. The most widely accepted explanation for the evolution of
endothermy has been selection for enhanced aerobic capacity. We review this
hypothesis in the light of advances in our understanding of ATP generation
by mitochondria and muscle performance. Together with the development of
isotope-based techniques for the measurement of metabolic rate in
free-ranging vertebrates, these have confirmed the importance of aerobic
scope in the evolution of endothermy: absolute aerobic scope, ATP generation
by mitochondria, and muscle power output are all strongly
temperature-dependent, indicating that there would have been significant
improvement in whole-organism locomotor ability with a warmer body. New data
on mitochondrial ATP generation and proton leak suggest that the thermal
physiology of mitochondria may differ between organisms of contrasting
ecology and thermal flexibility. Together with recent biophysical modelling,
this strengthens the long-held view that endothermy originated in smaller,
active eurythermal ectotherms living in a cool but variable thermal
environment. We propose that rather than being a secondary consequence of
the evolution of an enhanced aerobic scope, a warmer body was the means by
which that enhanced aerobic scope was achieved. This modified hypothesis
requires that the rise in metabolic rate, and the insulation necessary to
retain metabolic heat, arose early in the lineages leading to birds and
mammals. Large dinosaurs were warm, but were not endotherms, and the
metabolic status of pterosaurs remains unresolved.

KL Campbell cs 2010 Nature Genetics PRESS
Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer biochemical properties
adaptive for cold tolerance

We have genetically retrieved, resurrected and performed detailed
structure-function analyses on authentic woolly mammoth hemoglobin to reveal
for the first time both the evolutionary origins and the structural
underpinnings of a key adaptive physiochemical trait in an extinct species.
Hemoglobin binds and carries O2; however, its ability to offload O2 to
respiring cells is hampered at low temperatures, as heme deoxygenation is
inherently endothermic (that is, hemoglobin-O2 affinity increases as
temperature decreases). We identify amino acid substitutions with large
phenotypic effect on the chimeric ¦Â/¦Ä-globin subunit of mammoth
hemoglobin
that provide a unique solution to this problem and thereby minimize
energetically costly heat loss. This biochemical specialization may have
been involved in the exploitation of high-latitude environments by this
African-derived elephantid lineage during the Pleistocene period. This
powerful new approach to directly analyze the genetic and structural basis
of physiological adaptations in an extinct species adds an important new
dimension to the study of natural selection.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

"Archae-tecture"

Some thoughts on how housing developed:

I had puzzled over what happened many many thousands of years ago when some humans switched from semi-nomadic hunting and gathering housed in round tensional hut village dwellings to sedentary semi-agricultural square/rectilinear town housing. Although caves and rockshelters have always provided some forms of shelter, they were not often conveniently located, and probably used more for special activities (meeting place, food stores, art studios, temples, quarries) than regular domestic housing. I think simple dome piles, originally like beaver lodges, of stacked circular sedges & interwoven branches/saplings, may have been long employed for housing, and gradually they became more vertical and with thinner walls, transforming into the typical round hut, which then differentiated depending on the seasonal climate and migratory patterns of the people and various associated flora and fauna, and the increasing level of resource control and sedentary community development.

from (^) ( ^ ) (^)

to (^^) and {^ X ^} and [^^]

to [^^x^^]

to-- ^
- / _X_ \
/_____\
_____


to

====================
____________________
____________________
____________________

I 'knew' it was due to population concentration around a wellspring, a semi-controllable "domesticated" resource, where freshwater was always available and semi-domesticated animals were kept safe from predators by a wall or thorn fence.

But I didn't know how the dome huts converted to pyramid-roofed cube/rectilinear housing. Domes are stronger, stabler, roomier, better airflow control. Why change to a "worse" arrangement?

I think as populations grew, instead of enlarging the outer perimeter fence, they tightened their domes to fit more in, making them from hemisphere dome to round house to square house, then added a patio on top, then added a roof on top, which then became a second story house, which then became a 3 story apartment building.

It was hard to understand why didn't they just expand the perimeter fence, and keep making more domes outwardly. I think partly this was due to generations spent enclosed in the "permanent" compound, the children were told not to mess with the fences to prevent breaking it which would allow night-time predators to sneak in, and when the children grew they subconsciously continued to maintain that rule, repairing when necessary but not altering it. Only when subgroups moved in or out would the fence perimeter become a bit flexible, as part of a change in social order.

Also, to avoid polluting the well, all the food scraps & waste would be deposited outside the fence, resulting in a ring around, with only paths radiating from the center well, so people wouldn't want to build a house just outside the fence in the fertile wasteland, (better to move beyond to a "suburban" colony).

So the result was a concentric but discontinous ring of dome huts that evolved over generations to a series of rectangular huts in interconnected arcs (but split by paths/roads) radiating out from the center. Over time, 2nd and 3rd floors were added, which depended on both the house below and the neighboring house structural strength, while domes changed from houses to central social buildings like temples, later they also became more rectilinear due to population concentrations, canals and road congestion.

So, I'm glad to finally make sense of this prehistorical transition from dome structure housing to multiple unit subdivision blocks/longhouses. Interestingly, I figured it out by thinking about bubbles! A single bubble on a pond surface is a dome, but two combined bubbles form an adjoining vertical plane, and a ring of pond-floating bubbles produce rectilinear radiating vertical inner walls and horizontal floors (lacking only entrance/exit paths). I recall some Chinese traditional ring housing, 3 stories, vertical walls, around a central well. The residents said it was to protect them from predatory bandits, it may be a stage of social structural development which some cultures already passed through (like huge modern hyperpopulated rectilinear-imposed-grid cities) while others went through a parallel but distinctly different route (like feudal castles). DDeden
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Brief add: post-hole artifacts probably derived from a period after dome huts were 'tightened' into roundhouses by tensional fence/wall effect on population density as function of social-physical concentration/compression; self-stabilized domes replaced by roundhouses with ground soil friction supporting post foundation (indicating shovels/drills used in well digging in soil).

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Interesting information on theoretical structural architecture archaeology:
theoretical structural archaeology

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Brief on housing in nature, in reference to Bucky Fuller (geodesic domes, isotropic vector matrix IVM):

Also, in a general sense, in nature, many animals tend to distribute their burrows/nests in an IVM pattern, not perfectly since the terrain contains many different local features (hills, ponds, dry spots) but in a generalized ecosystematic way. This depends on a lot of other factors, but holds true for many very different species, excluding highly social types (honeybees pack em in tight in hexagonal packing). I was thinking about how beaver families in small streams stay apart from other families (topographically descending knotted rope), but in large swampy lakes they tend to be horizontally equidistanced, that is, vectorially equilibrium distributed in a horizontal space-conserving fashion, (topographically planar crystal).
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Etymology: commercial, merchant, marchand, mercantile, market, marine, mire/moor/mer
mer - sumer/meru/meroe/samar...,
cent/kent/zehn/ten/centum-satum
Malay: satu, Uzbek(?): sato

Why did Greek use thalassa for sea? thalassa sounds like Arab Selasa/thelatha (wednesday/3), did "thalassa = sea" come from salt-aqua/sal-akwa/thal-acca?
Malacca/malaga/malaya from mal-aqua?
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update:

"Oddly, all tent-based cultures that evolved to locational permanency and more sophisticated materials use, seem to have rather naturally adopted the vertical-walls method." JB

Not so likely, since tents were specialized implements and derivative of dog domestication, long after generalized dome huts had been in use. Until then, skins and hides were food wraps and scraps, the whole furry carcass burned, just as in nature after wildfires.

Post-holes are found only after dome huts got (fence-tensionally) squeezed into ("vertical") roundhouses and longhouses with triangular roofs (from which nomads derived tipis, yurts, tents), and are associated with improved well-digging and early irrigation, which then encouraged vertical wall construction. DD

article on 10,000ka lakeside roundhouse:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/08/100810101724.htm

Pygmies & bushmen: dome hut = mongolu (igloo, bungalo/buffalo, ger, geodesic, judaic, masjid?)

http://music000001.blogspot.com/2009/10/222-deconstructing-postmodern-condition.html

Slovenian marsh: veneti, oldest (square circle/merkaba) axle & wheel, wood canoe
http://www.angelfire.com/country/veneti/AmerDomoOldestWheel.html

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Double Crescent



From Barry Evans' Field Notes in the North Coast Journal
Mars, Earth, Moon

View from Mars, showing Earth and Moon as crescents.


Beautiful planetary pictures: (Earth & Saturn, Earth rise on Moon)
here

Earth, tiny, upper left of Saturns' rings: (click pic twice to magnify image)


The ISS Intl Space Station orbiting through the aurora borealis:
here
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Yawning: http://www.mindhacks.com/blog/2010/04/at_the_yawn_of_time.html
Empathic mirror neurons in humans:
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20627565.600-empathetic-mirror-neurons-found-in-humans-at-last.html

Sunday, April 11, 2010

Stingrays, mollusks, humans in African Rift Valley 1.5ma

First, mangrove, mollusk econiche evolution via tectonic plate rift activity at Tethys shoreline, why SE Asian/west Pacific mangroves more diverse than Africa or So. America mangroves (Ellison):
here
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African Rift, Lake Turkana - Ileret footprints in mud 1.5ma, shellfish harvesting
picture

Apiths may have dug/finger-raked and consumed floating vegetation, shallow-shore tubers and shallow benthic invertebrates. But only genus Homo submerged fully while foraging, losing the laryngeal air sac and developing oral breathing and flatter hands and longer feet with short toes.

site habitat

"In 1984, the most complete hominin skeleton to date, KNM-WT 15000, was discovered eroding from a hillside at NK III. The specimen, which retained the skull and almost entire postcranial skeleton, belonged to a juvenile male Homo erectus/ergaster. Nicknamed the “Turkana Boy,” the specimen was determined to be 1.5 ma.

NK III site: Turkana Boy and fossil taxa include the freshwater stingray, Dasyatis Africana; the catfish, Synodontis; the extinct pig, Metrodiocherus; two extinct species of hippopotamus, Hippopotamus gorgops and H. aethiopicus; chelonian carapaces (turtle shells); some avian limb bones and phalanges; two species of bovid; sponge spicules; several species of ostracod (a crustacean); cichlids (a family of perciform fish); cyprinids (carps and minnows); and several varanids (monitor lizards). The paleoenvironment of the Nariokotome region during the time of the Turkana Boy has been reconstructed as a temporary marshland formed by the annual flooding of the Omo River with interspersed grassland and patches of woodland. One or more lakes were probably present as well."
anthro site history
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Archaic Humans: Beavers & cleavers, sea waters & sea otters

Bilzingsleben, Germany, 325,000 years ago, microlith, pebble tools
Hoxne, England, 325,000 years ago - handaxes, extinct beaver, otter
Furze Platt, England, 325,000 years ago - large pointed handaxes, cleavers
Tan Tan, Morocco, 325,000 years ago - Mid Acheulian tools, female figurine
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Beavers modify their habitat like humans do: Logging, Damming, Lodging
beavers arrested
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here

A waterway linked the East African Rift Valley with the Indian Ocean 1.9ma, freshwater stingrays evolved there between 1.9 and 1.3ma after a marine incursion, the H erectus/ergaster skeleton Turkana boy was found there at waterside region. Probably Homo species, stingrays and 3 species of mollusks moved from Indian Ocean estuaries into the Rift valley lakes then, during a wet/high sea level period. The same time, Dmanisi, Georgia had H erectus/georgicus occupants living between the Caspian and Black seas. Tectonic plate collisions have uplifted the area since 1.8ma.
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This site of early hominins is in Republic of Georgia, south of the Caucasus Mountains, east of the Black Sea, west of the Caspian Sea, on a wooded promontory surrounded by steep cliffs and water on three sides, that might have provided an ideal place to drive and ambush game.

Did they speak? Most likely they clicked & hummed/sang:
"
Meyer and his colleagues — David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua, both of the Georgian State Museum in Tbilisi — compared the size, shape, and volume of the Dmanisi vertebrae with more than 2 200 corresponding bones from people, chimpanzees, and gorillas.

"The Dmanisi spinal column falls within the human range and would have comfortably accommodated a modern human spinal cord," Meyer says.

Moreover, the fossil vertebrae would have provided ample structural support for the respiratory muscles needed to articulate words, he asserts. Although it's impossible to confirm that our prehistoric ancestors talked, Meyer notes, H. erectus at Dmanisi faced no respiratory limitations on speech.

In contrast, the 1984 discovery in Kenya of a boy's 1.6-million-year-old skeleton, identified by some researchers as H. erectus and by others as Homo ergaster, yielded small, chimplike vertebrae. Researchers initially suspected that the ancient youth and his presumably small-spined comrades lacked the respiratory control to talk as people do today." http://www.donsmaps.com/dmanisi.html

Old man with one tooth, cooking or shellfish food?
In the new work, David Lordkipanidze of the Georgian State Museum in Tbilisi and his colleagues describe a skull and jawbone from a hominid male who had lost all but one tooth. The tooth sockets had been resorbed into the skull, suggesting that he had lost the teeth several years before dying. The discovery represents the earliest case of severe masticatory impairment in the fossil record yet found, the researchers say.

Near the site of their latest find, the scientists also uncovered stone artifacts and animal bones with toolmarks on them. In order to survive without the ability to chew or bite meat, the gummy individual would have needed to collect sufficient soft food, including bone marrow, brain matter or soft plant food. Such gathering or processing could have been done alone, but the scientists posit that other individuals may have helped because of the individual's advanced age or illness, either of which could have been responsible for the loss of his teeth. The discovery, the authors conclude, "raises interesting questions regarding social structure, life history and subsistence strategies of early Homo that warrant further investigation." --Sarah Graham

Dmanisi site had both African ostriches, Kudaro macaques and short-necked giraffes and EurAsian wolves, sabercats and EurAsian beavers (skull wider than neolithic Polish beaver which were larger and faster growing than modern EurAsian beavers).
Simple stone pebble tools were used, probably with stick tools. http://www.pjoes.com/pdf/16.5/697-705.pdf
BUR CZAK-ABRAMOWICZ N. The beaver and some other interesting animals in Caucasus. Przegląd Zool. 8, 51, 1964. [in Polish]
Dmanisi seems to have dried out after the pliocene/pleistocene border.

Black Sea beaver species plentiful from Miocene to Pleistocene:
http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:r7qdVn9-DEwJ:www.isez.pan.krakow.pl/journals/azc_v/pdf/52A(1-2)/52A(1-2)_05.pdf+caucasus+beaver+fossil&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShIHf6nddQWt5r5GQUHg1EpZtgR9lM5aujcurYqi6cwb_4Dx8GUHzXvAW6i5F_x9scKtiMZ-vgjm_PlJvLL8BFK1LhjPFoZpbgUifI-4kzwMxehiRhHHKFM6LGzuo_FxWDPRuwr&sig=AHIEtbTUnw9qk40z-qG1csiS_SzfF0K1TQ

Conjecture: ARC Diving was synchronized tandem Aqua-photic Respiratory Cycle dive foraging, when one partner dove down to the benthos the other backfloated above, communication was retained via clicks (at depth) and tones (at surface) which eventually merged to become uniquely human click-consonant tonal speech. ARC diving included in complement the Mammalian Diving Reflex (MDR), engaged upon submergence optimally conserving oxygen, the Photic Sneeze (or Surfacing) Reflex (PSR), engaged upon emergence at the surface, optimally exchanged carbon dioxide and oxygen-rich air. The combination of descent and ascent reflexes allowed sustained dive foraging for coastal seafood in sub/tropical lagoons, while seasonal inland freshwater herbs/rhyzomes were harvested by shoreside shallow wading, especially around Eurasian beaver-dammed woodland/wetland ponds and Peri-Tethyan estuaries. Caves and rockshelters offered sleeping sites in addition to wood-stick and reed-plastered dome huts.
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Chicken pox can be spread by humans to apes, per a zoo account. Unknown if mumps are uniquely human, as I conjectured earlier.
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Borneo frog breathes through skin, lost lungs, better hydrodynamics and less ascents.
A frog that breathes through its skin because it has no lungs, which makes it appear flat. This aerodynamic shape allows the frogs to move swiftly in fast flowing streams.
Neandertal face long, modern human face short: http://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8142.abstract

Monday, April 5, 2010

Cybernetics, Synergetics, Synarctics



The top diagram is mine, entitled 'Trident Earth' (Earth as nuclear sphere surrounded by partially stellated duo-cuboctahedron with incidental owl imagery due to unfolding the top and bottom tets like flower petals opening), the next image is Bucky Fullers 'Cosmic Hierarchy' without the relative volume data.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetic#Overview
"The term cybernetics stems from the Greek (kybernetes, steersman, governor,
pilot, or rudder — the same root as government)."
Does that mean Trim-Tab?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_theory
"Systems theory is an interdisciplinary theory about the nature of complex
systems in nature, society, and science, and is a framework by which one can
investigate and/or describe any group of objects that work together to produce
some result."
Is that Synergetics?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synergetics

Synarctics: supplement to Synergetics by Bucky Fuller
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Reciprocal relative volume calculation, conversion constant:: {via ku @ Synergeo}
XYZ -> IVM: sqrt (9/8)
IVM -> XYZ: sqrt (8/9)

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Synergetics, tet cube

Fig. 986.210 Diagonal of Cube as Unity in Synergetic Geometry: In synergetic geometry mensural unity commences with the tetra edge as prime vector. Unity is taken not from the cube edge but from the edge of one of the two tetra that structure it. (Compare Fig. 463.01.) Proportionality exactly known to us is not required in nature's structuring. Parts have no existence independent of the polyhedra they constitute.

Synergetics, chefs' hat

fig 16
fig 17

416.02 If you next take two triangles, each made of three balls in closest packing, and twist one of the triangles 60 degrees around its center hole axis, the two triangular groups now may be nested into one another with the three spheres of one nesting in the three intersphere tangency valleys of the other. We now have six spheres in symmetrical closest packing, and they form the six vertexes of the octahedron. This twisting of one set to register it closepackedly with the other, is the first instance of two pairs internested to form the tetrahedron, and in the next case of the two triangles twisted to internestability as an octahedron, is called interprecessing of one set by its complementary set.
416.03 Two pairs of two-layer, seven-ball triangular sets of closestpacked spheres precess in a 60-degree twist to associate as the cube. (See Fig. A, illustration 416.01.) This 14-sphere cube is the minimum cube that may be stably produced by closest-packed spheres. While eight spheres temporarily may be tangentially glued into a cubical array with six square hole facades, they are not triangulated; ergo, are unstructured; ergo, as a cube are utterly unstable and will collapse; ergo, no eight-ball cube can be included in a structural hierarchy.
416.04 The two-frequency (three spheres to an edge), two-layer tetrahedron may also be formed into a cube through 90-degree interprecessional effect. (See Fig. A.)
417.00 Precession of Two Sets of 60 Closest-Packed Spheres

Fig. 417.01 417.01 Two identical sets of 60 spheres in closest packing precess in 90 degree action to form a seven-frequency, eight-ball-to-the-edge tetrahedron with a total of 120 spheres; exactly 100 spheres are on the outer shell, exactly 20 spheres are in theinner shell, and there is no sphere at the nucleus. This is the largest possible double-shelled tetrahedral aggregation of closest-packed spheres having no nuclear sphere. As long as it has the 20- sphere tetrahedron of the inner shell, it will never acquire a nucleus at any frequency.
417.02 The 120 spheres of this non-nuclear tetrahedron correspond to the 120 basic triangles that describe unity on a sphere. They correspond to the 120 identical right- spherical triangles that result from symmetrical subdividing of the 20 identical, equilateral, equiangular triangles of either the spherical or planar-faceted icosahedron accomplished by the most economical connectors from the icosahedron's 12 vertexes to the mid-edges of the opposite edges of their respective triangles, which connectors are inherently perpendicular to the edges and pass through one another at the equitriangles' center and divide each of the equilaterals into six similar right triangles. These 120 triangles constitute the highest common multiple of system surface division by a single module unit area, as these 30º , 60º , 90º triangles are not further divisible into identical parts.
417.03 When we first look at the two unprecessed 60-ball halves of the 120-sphere tetrahedron, our eyes tend to be deceived. We tend to look at them "three-dimensionally," i.e., in the terms of exclusively rectilinear and perpendicular symmetry of potential associability and closure upon one another. Thus we do not immediately see how we could bring two oblong quadrangular facets together with their long axes crossing one another at right angles.
417.04 Our sense of exclusively perpendicular approach to one another precludes our recognition that in 60-degree (versus 90-degree) coordination, these two sets precess in 60-degree angular convergence and not in parallel-edged congruence. This 60-degree convergence and divergence of mass-attracted associabilities is characteristic of the four- dimensional system.
418.00 Analogy of Closest Packing, Periodic Table, and Atomic Structure
418.01 The number of closest-packed spheres in any complete layer around any nuclear group of layers always terminates with the digit 2. First layer, 12; second, 42; third, 92 . . . 162, 252, 362, and so on. The digit 2 is always preceded by a number that corresponds to the second power of the number of layers surrounding the nucleus. The third layer's number of 92 is comprised of the 3 multiplied by itself (i.e., 3 to the second power), which is 9, with the digit 2 as a suffix.
418.02 This third layer is the outermost of the symmetrically unique, nuclear-system patterns and may be identified with the 92 unique, selfregenerative, chemical-element systems, and with the 92nd such element__ uranium.
418.03 The closest-sphere-packing system's first three layers of 12, 42, and 92 add to 146, which is the number of neutrons in uranium__which has the highest nucleon population of all the self-regenerative chemical elements; these 146 neutrons, plus the 92 unengaged mass-attracting protons of the outer layer, give the predominant uranium of 238 nucleons, from whose outer layer the excess two of each layer (which functions as a neutral axis of spin) can be disengaged without distorting the structural integrity of the symmetrical aggregate, which leaves the chain-reacting Uranium 236.
418.04 All the first 92 chemical elements are the finitely comprehensive set of purely abstract physical principles governing all the fundamental cases of dynamically symmetrical, vectorial geometries and their systematically self-knotting, i.e., precessionally self-interfered, regenerative, inwardly shunting events.
418.05 The chemical elements are each unique pattern integrities formed by their self-knotting, inwardly precessing, periodically synchronized selfinterferences. Unique pattern evolvement constitutes elementality. What is unique about each of the 92 self- regenerative chemical elements is their nonrepetitive pattern evolvement, which terminates with the third layer of 92.

Small duotet 1.5tv, small int octa .5tv, small cube 3tv
Large duotet 12tv, large int octa 4tv, large cube 24tv
Double Duo-tet = includes VE w/o 1/2-octas, in IVM and cubic matrix


4F tet (slightly offset)
Cubes ahoy!
1 F tet, volume 1, surface area 4 (triangle faces).
2 F tet, volume 8, surface area 16.
3 F tet, volume 27, surface area 36.
4 F tet, volume 64, surface area 64.
5 F tet, volume 125, surface area 100.
6 F tet, volume 216, surface area 144.

What about the oddball relative volumes of the icosa and vector edge cube? (cont'd)
18.51 + 8.49 = 27. 8 icosas in 2F cube pattern has central vector edge cube
27 = 3 x 3 x 3 (3 Freq small cube). 8 = 2 x 2 x 2 (2 Freq small cube)
3 layers of a cube of 9 spheres/cubes

01.02.03. + 04.05.06. + 07.08.09.
10.11.12. + 13.14.15. + 16.17.18.
19.
20.21. + 22.23.24. + 25.26.27.

000+000+000
000+000+000
0
00+000+000

000+000+000x000+000+000x000+000+000

27 + 27 = 54 (2 cubes)
54 - 42 = 12 (2 cubes - 2nd freq VE vertices = 1st freq VE 12 vertices)
54 - 12 = 42 (2 cubes - 1st freq icosa vertices = 2nd freq icosa vertices)

92 = 90 + 2 where 2 is suffix, 90 is 9 x 10, 9 is the full set.

Wonky watercube: foam has 14 sided cells of minimal surface area
here

involution, revolution, evolution A geodesic hemispheric dome of aluminium tubing and fabric with congruent torus with central funnel column as supporting mast, wind turbine, tracking solar collector, chimney, water spout reservoir, air conditioning.


. In single symmetrical systems, all the vertexes are equidistant radially from their common volumetric centers, and the centers of area of all their triangular facets are also equidistant from the system's common volumetric center.
400.41 The minimum single symmetrical system is the regular tetrahedron, which contains the least volume with the most surface as compared to all other symmetrical single systems. There are only three single symmetrical systems: the regular tetrahedron, with a "unit" volume-to-skin ratio of 1 to l; the regular octahedron, with a volume-to- surface ratio of 2 to 1; and the regular icosahedron, with a volume-to-surface ratio of 3.7 to 1. Single asymmetrical systems contain less volume per surface area of containment than do symmetrical or regular tetrahedra. The more asymmetrical, the less the volume-to- surface ratio. Since the structural strength is expressed by the vector edges, the more asymmetrical, the greater is the containment strength per unit of volumetric content.

VE to octa showing icosa phases
Flexible polyhedra, VE, golden icosa/tetra, the Arc: red curve at upper left at page 12 includes the Synergetics jitterbug transformation from VE cuboctahedron through the various icosahedral phases to the octahedron. The Synarctics full jitterbug actually continues through to the tetrahedron and triangle without stopping, though it can reverse at any click-stop phase.

The Synarctic version of structural dimensionality of the jitterbug transformation, with decrease in bond distribution:



























































Dimension
Single Jitterbug
Dual JitterbugsInt plane polygons

































































































































































6th Dimension

VE non-nuclear cuboctahedronDual non-nuc cuboctahedra
hexagon

5th Dimension
fluid icosahedra

rigid icosahedron


pentagon







4th Dimension



octahedron

cube faced w/ 6 octamids


square



3rd Dimension

tetrahedron

tri prism w/ 3 octamids & 2 tetramids


triangle

2nd Dimension



2 Freq triangle

"winged" octahedron
triangle
1st Dimension

equil triangle 8 layer non-Z "prism"

octa? tet? SoD? triangle? non-Z "anti-prism"


triangle















































internal flat planar polygon defines dimension:

cuboctahedron = 6 dimension, hexagon, dynamic cycle
icosahedron = 5 dimension, pentagon, static shell
octahedron/cube/triprism = 4 dimension, square, matrix
tetrahedron = 3 dimension, triangle, structure, crystal
2 Freq triangle = 2 dimension, triangle, system, tile
1 Freq triangle = 1 dimension, triangle, unit, cell



Note on Synarctic Jitterbug:
VE vertex single bond pin hinged, (compress able)
octa double bond edge hinged, (torque able)
tetra tri bond cirumferentially hinged (squish able)
triangle 8 plane full face hinged (coplanar polar layerable)
SoD nuclear plane face hinged (noncoplanar neutral layerable)

12, 42, 92
12 = 6 x 2, 3 x 4
42 = 6 x 7, 6 is non-nuc hexagon, 7 is nuc hexagon
42 = 3 x 14, 3 is prime triangle, 14 is VE & foam faces
92 = 90 degrees/surface spheres + polarity suffix

am: A regular octahedron can be cumulated so that it is either a rhombic
dodecahedron or a stella octangula.
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Cumulation.html
Math World won't admit this, but if you cumulate an octahedron, then
you can get the rhombic dodecahedron, just as if you cumulate the cube.

A stella octangula and rhombic dodecahedron are identical on a spherical surface AFAICT.
-

VE as 5tv
VE**5 = 160tv

Table: Initial Frequencies of Vector Equilibrium
Close-packed
Spheres Freq Tetravolumes
Radius 1 VE0/2 2 1/2
Radius 1 VE0 5
Radius 2 VE1 20
Radius 4 VE2 160



patern(pattern/path/pith/pathos) matern(matrix/matter/material/math/method)

Friday, April 2, 2010

Monogamy in treefrogs & humans

Monogamy in humans, hominoids and tree frogs
here

Air sac in a puddle frog species used for visual gesture more than vocalization, probably due to a 'tuned-in' aural predator abundance similar to Hawaiian crickets which lost their song due to predation:
here

Some frogs lack vocal sacs, such as those from the genera Heleioporus and Neobatrachus, but these species can still produce a loud call. Their buccal cavity is enlarged and dome-shaped, acting as a resonance chamber that amplifies their call. The noise of flowing water overpowers any call, so some river frogs communicate by other means.

The main reason for calling is to allow males to attract a mate. Males call either individually or in a group called a chorus. Females of many frog species, for example Polypedates leucomystax, produce calls reciprocal to the males', which act as the catalyst for the enhancement of reproductive activity in a breeding colony.[39] A male frog emits a release call when mounted by another male. Tropical species also have a rain call that they make on the basis of humidity cues prior to a rain shower. Many species also have a territorial call that is used to chase away other males. All of these calls are emitted with the mouth of the frog closed.

A distress call, emitted by some frogs when they are in danger, is produced with the mouth open, resulting in a higher-pitched call. The effectiveness of the call is unknown; however, it is suspected the call intrigues the predator until another animal is attracted, distracting them enough for its escape.

Many species of frog have deep calls, or croaks. The English onomatopoeic spelling is "ribbit". wikipedia

Nature by number: spatial geometry in natural growth patterns

here

New apith skeletons found

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