Saturday, September 29, 2012

Mammoth Herding 101

Sheep herder: shepherd
Mammoth herder: mahout (also Indian elephant herder)

Mammoths are most closely related to Indian elephants, then to African elephants, then to manatees (tusked sea cows), then to hyraxes (hooved squirrel like animals), all Afrotherian descendants.

In central Asia, mammoths ate fruits from natural orchards (apple/apricots/plums/cherries/pears/citrons), marshland sedges & reed stems & rhyzomes, steppe grasses, woodland tree mast & bast (especially fire-burnt carmelized inner bark), mosses, annual flowers & seed berries/pulses (buttercups, gorse). They travelled seasonally from northern siberia southerly to the Himalayan highlands.

Tamil: mamoti (man = earth, vetti = spade)
Yakut: mamma (earth) (story of earth-burrowing mole-like mammoths is derived from mammoths using their tusks as spades to unearth tubers/bundles of grasses and perhaps snow shovels to scrape off snow crust from food.
English: manatee (manatus = hand, Latin)
Hebrew: behemoth (giant beast, water related)
Nias Behu: megalithic elephant cf batu gajah megalithic stone elephant (3 heads = head & tusks, 4 pillars = ele legs)

In Memorium
Phillip Vallentine Tobias: October 14, 1925­June 7, 2012
Frederick E Grine & Peter S Ungar 2012
Evol Anthrop doi 10.1002/evan.21326

"If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of giants." (mammoths)

This phrase, immortalized by Sir Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke
dated February 5, 1675, takes on a special and bitterly poignant meaning
in the context of the passing of Phillip Tobias.
Newton was, of course, paraphrasing, with considerable abbreviation, the
translation of the statement by John of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres, who
wrote in his Metalogicon, or Defense of the Trivium (1159):
"Nos esse quasi nanos, gigantium humeris insidentes, ut possimus plura eis
et remotiora videre, non utique proprii visus acumine, aut eminentia
corporis, sed quia in altum subvenimur et extollimur magnitudine
["We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more
than they, and things at a greater distance, not by virtue of any
sharpness of sight on our part, or any physical distinction, but because
we are carried high and raised up by their giant size."]
We imagine that Phillip would probably have appreciated not only the
fullness of John's prose, but also its melodiousness in the original

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Hummingbirds: Flying backwards efficiently

According to Dr Sapir, the most important finding of the study was that flying backwards uses a similar amount of energy to flying forwards, both of which were more efficient than hovering.

[Hummingbirds swivel their wrists in a figure 8 pattern, while other birds swivel their shoulders.]

He continued, "During backward flight, the bird's body is held in [a] much more upright posture. We were expecting the body will experience a much higher drag and that the bird will need to invest much more work to overcome this drag."

Further investigation using life-sized models determined that drag during backward flight is only slightly higher than when the bird is flying forward.

"[This is] probably because drag forces are relatively negligible at flight in relatively slow airspeeds, as characterising backward flight," he said.
High speed hummers beat jets
Bird flight based on single angle flapping

Saturday, September 22, 2012

Namakw Nomadic Dome(s)tic

A possible tie-in
kusa/kosa/kosei cf khoi-khoi-san of namakwa/kalahari SW Africa
 "noma/nomatka/nomatzinco(Nauatl)=forever" cf namakwa/nomadic/dome(s)tic

The Khoe-San people of southern Africa, who speak a language based on

clicking sounds, are descendants of the most ancient genetic split

found yet in living humans, finds an international group of


The results also reveal some of the evolutionary changes that helped

give rise to modern humanity.

Anatomically modern humans (us), evolved about 200,000 years ago in

Africa. Differences between people living today and our evolutionary

relatives include much less pronounced eyebrow ridges and larger


Much remains uncertain about how modern humans originated in Africa's

cradle of humanity. For instance, researchers had long thought humans

arose in eastern Africa, but recent studies hint at roots in southern

Africa. [Image Gallery: Our Closest Human Ancestor]

Khoe-San genes

To help uncover the origins of humanity, scientists analyzed genetic

variations across 220 individuals from 11 different populations in

southern Africa to explore their relationships and commonalities.

Approximately 2.3 million DNA variations were analyzed per person.

The investigators found the earliest diversification event in the

history of all humans occurred about 100,000 years ago. That is well

before modern humans migrated out of Africa and about twice as old as

the divergences of central African Pygmies and East African

hunter-gatherers and from other African groups, said researcher Carina

Schlebusch at Uppsala University in Sweden.

The descendants of this split are the Khoe-San people, the two

hunter-gatherer ethnic groups who are known for speaking with clicks

and share many other traits. Historically, the Khoe were pastoralists,

employing domesticated sheep and cattle, while the San were


It remains uncertain what exactly made the Khoe-San diverge and become

genetically isolated from other African groups.Still, "the African

continent is large, and there are geographic barriers to gene

flow,"researcher Mattias Jakobsson, also of Uppsala University, told


"Another factor that might play a role in the isolation of African

populations is also the cycling of the ice ages," Schlebusch told

LiveScience."In Africa, you get stages of really arid conditions with

ice ages and we see population contractions."

The scientists aren't sure the purposes of the genetic variations that

set the Khoe-San apart. The extent to which each gene variation shapes

what people are like physically "is very, very hard to understand at

this stage," researcher Himla Soodyall at the University of the

Witwatersrand in South Africa told LiveScience.

Rise of modern humans

The researchers also identified genetic variations that emerged before

this split between the Khoe-San and other groups, adaptations linked

to the rise of modern humans as a whole. These appear linked with

skeletal development, such as bone and cartilage growth, as well as

immune system and brain cell function.

"There's one gene where if you have mutations in that gene, you get

heavy eyebrow ridges and rib cages that look like something that could

potentially be Neanderthal or archaic human," Jakobsson told

LiveScience. This finding suggests that further analysis of these

African groups "will help us understand the emergence of anatomically

modern humans."

Instead of pinpointing a single location from which modern humans

arose, the genetic analysis revealed "different parts of Africa show

up as potentially being the origin of anatomically modern humans,"

Jakobsson said. That suggests many different groups contributed to the

gene pool "that then later on became anatomically modern humans," he


The research also yielded insights on how pastoralism first spread to

southern Africa. Among the Nama, a pastoralist Khoe group, the

scientists found a small but very distinct genetic component that is

shared with east Africans — for instance, the cattle-herding Maasai.

"We postulate that this east African component was introduced by east

African groups that brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa,"

Schlebusch said.

In addition, the northern San populations differed from the southern

San in terms of their immune systems. "We know the southern San

populations had more contact with Bantu-speaking individuals and also

incoming colonists that colonized South Africa in the 1600s, so it

might be that the southern San populations were exposed to more novel

diseases than northern San populations which were more isolated,"

Schlebusch said.

Thursday, September 20, 2012

cognates & divergences

co-mo-ni (N) co-motion, (Sp) como/comida, (E) communal, (M) bersama/macam/how done)
do-me-s-ti-cate (enclosed huts/coop)
na-ma-s-te/car-_ (Hindu greeting)
no-ma-_-di-c (transhumant herders)
thal-mu-_-di-c (Hebrew myths)
shlo-me-le-chaim (Hebrew greeting)
sa-wa-_-di-ca/crup (Thai greeting F/M)
hu-wa-_-ka-n-ta-nka (Q+Lak)
sa-wa-s-ti-ca (f/ari(a)n/gi symbol)
_ - va-ti-ca-n (rome)
le-vi-ti-cu-s (meticulous law/lev/leg/reg)
aur-ve-di-c (ayurvedic ancient medica)
da-o-ui-di (wood/whittle/uitli?) dawei/dao/tao/tsavo

huaca (Qech) spiritual temple/shrine
wakkan tanka (Lak) great spirit/mystery ways/life
tanakh (Heb) torah + tales
vatican/leviticus/vedic/ueli  societal authority-tort/law-norms

my comment at Carlos's blog:

hand as antler/dental/talon/tine->(t)entwine(d), tent(l)acle/(s)nag/k(l)e, tentlep|hant (trunk)?
tangle/knuckle/angle/naik(M climb)/knot/mongolu

Neander-tal used raptor/corvid bones/feathers
Last night, I dreamed that the great wall of China was a late stone reconstruction of earlier Altai neanderthal mammoth riders ("mobile watchtowers cf India elephants") that used wool-felt colored banners to signal group movements for mass/maz hunts across the steppes.

banner/blanket/felt=folded pelt(dyed/tint/paint skin outwards, fur inwards -> rider sat on meshed/mashed/crushed/wetted fur/wool to make felt/fuld
quilt = quill/spind(r)ill/na(i/eed)l + hand tac/touch/tex/tile
filter= wool/weft/wove(n)lt/felt (not skin/hide) used to warm packed snow & filter water under rider which collected along bottom seams into skin bags w(ha)indbag[gua/gourd/gin/gyne/vahine/wanita/womb/umb]=windsock/sac=wineskins/canteen/kantong/pouch/pocket/bucket/bouquet(herb tea/potpouri?)/kettle?
cowl/hood-shovel=snuo-felt-snowmelt: mammoth kneeled down, blanket open, snow was shoveled/packed on top, rider closed blanket, mammoth rose, rider climbed on, settled/squished/soft/loft/elevate/elephant
"flying carpet" origin. flight+sit+fluid+folded+hind
some more comments:
souk/souq (Arab) merchant huts/booths
sukha/sukhot (Hebrew) harvest shack (English)

(originally round huts, became rectilinear due to population concentration in favorable markets)
  • ...yeah, DD, sockets before electricity or sprockets
    and rockets and socks and wind socks.
  • soc-ket, bast-ket (bast = inner string bark of lime/basswood/tilia tree)

    sockets - sox/gaiters (pelt or felt) worn beneath woven fiber sandals/snowshoes long before moccasins invented in NAm per 1 Amerind story.
    Incurved (confined) fossil toes in EurAsia indicate 45ka footware.
  • sockets for (Neand) axe-head and (Afric) arrow-head?

    ostrog(Yakutsk/Russile)=fort,=ost/ozt(r)oc/g=oztoc/oztotl(N)=cave,= Oztoc(N)=name of a spring near Hill of the Star/Citlaltepetl(N/Mex).

    "Archaeologists have discovered stone axes & sharp flint arrow-heads of both Homo spp in lime-stone caves of N-Israel. The latest findings have led researchers working on the site of Nahal
    Me'arot (Stream Cave) to believe that the 2 sub-spp may have co-existed peacefully in the coastal mountain range"

    sock't/sack/suck'tion vs blow/bellow
  • Regarding moon/calender/counting:
    I dimly recall this numerical series as possibly PIE: = t(h)rive five seve eleve tweleve
    later "new" 9 & 10 were inserted to make
    ...seve eight nine ten eleve twelve (7-12)
    in a similar manner to the Julian cal. to Greg. cal. inserted months resulting in misnamed months

    tom thumb ~ elf (alif(Arab A=alpha)?) was the early letter A representing not ox but elephant, then later changed to ox? (tusks to horns, just as early steppe tipis were first mammoth bull furskins, then later bison bull defurred skins)

    baby eel = elver

    elevate/lift up vs excavate/cave excrete
    convex/vetti-e vs concave

  • Saturday, September 15, 2012

    Is Ra El - Isa La Mu - Is Ma El - Is La Am

    Question on name:

    "Yahweh is simply a grammatical variation of ehyeh; ehyeh is first person singular, whereas Yahweh is third person singular. Because Yahweh is grammatically noted as third person singular for Yahweh, it means, “He is,” whereas ‘ehyeh,’ being in the first person means, “I am.”

    [Spanish pronunciation of Allah is Ayah which in Malay is Father = Abba (Aramaic: Father)  DD]

    Therefore, when humans discuss God’s name, the usage is Yahweh, meaning, “He is,” whereas when Yahweh Himself speaks, only HE can rightfully claim ownership in the first person singular construction, saying, “I AM.”

    The Septuagint was commonly available and used by Jews during the lifetime of Jesus because the entire Roman Empire used Koine Greek as its primary national language, just as English is fast becoming the global standard today. This major Greek version is called the Septuagint (meaning, ‘seventy’) because of the legend that the Torah was translated in the 3rd century BC by 72 scholars. The legend is probably accurate in several respects: The first Greek translation included only the Torah, and it was done in Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. Eventually the remaining Hebrew Scriptures were translated, but obviously, they were translated by other scholars whose skills and viewpoints differed.

    As a result, the Jews of that period sought after a Hebrew Bible for benefit of everyone in synagogue could understand, due mainly to the decline of spoken Hebrew, then spoken by very few, mostly scribes, rabbis, and pockets of communities of Jews scattered in many places. Consequently, the Septuagint is the Hebrew Old Testament translated in Greek and it played a key role in the changes made to the Hebrew name for God (i.e. – using the Tetragrammaton, YHWH to replace ‘Yahweh’ & omitting Yahweh altogether).

    As a spoken language, ancient Hebrew is much different than in its written form. God revealed himself by His personal Name to Moses as, “I AM THAT I AM,” (ehyeh asher ehyeh); "

    Jah from where? Jah=Yah=IeshRaEl  Hallelu'jah; (h)Al le lu ya; Al-ilah Leyv, Luv Jah [God/Bog/Got/Judah/Yehuda/Buddha/Kuda/Allah/Yahweh/Jehova/Yeshiva/Shiva]
    Ra + Jah = Raja/Rasta/RaShDa/Royal/Regnal/Regulate/Ras/Rosh

    In the original text of the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrew letters for "Jah" occurs 50 times, 26 times alone and 24 times in the term "Hallelujah" or the even earlier Hebrew translation of "Hallelu'yah", since the letter "J" was first brought into language around 500 years ago

    Hebrew: Jasher/Yasher = Upright/Just
    Arabic: Shah, Sheikh
    Spanish: Hacer
    English: Church?

    P/Bahana(Zuni/Hopi) perhaps linked to Bwana (Sir in Swahili, from Arabic abūna our father, master)
    - The term originates from the Hebrew word shibbólet (שִׁבֹּלֶת), which literally means the part of a plant containing grains, such as an ear of corn or a stalk of grain[3] or, in different contexts, "stream, torrent".[4][5] The modern usage derives from an account in the Hebrew Bible, in which pronunciation of this word was used to distinguish Ephraimites, whose dialect lacked a /ʃ/ phoneme (as in shoe), from Gileadites whose dialect did include such a {sh}phoneme.

    lith litho litr let letra/petra/tetra lythe lyze lathe latch lact leche leck
    pile pillar cellar well kadoor equator equine equi kwekwel/wheel

    Jacob poured oil on pillow/pillar stone, Moses got water from split stone, Hindus pour ghee on stone statue

    (Je) Ho Ba Shi Ra

    Jah Oba Lisk  (Oba = king, god, bwana(Sir)=(Arab)abuna, cf Obama, Obelisk) {African}
    Jahweh/Ya-Ha-W(eh)-Ha (note: early O/UB replaced by WV in Medit.) YHWH {Hellene/Roman}
    Jehova lechem {Jewish to European}
    Yeshiva lechaim {Hebrew/hapiru/abiru/abrahm/Chaldean oraha/m}
    Shiva lingam {Hindu/sindh/sinhalanka/brahman/rahman}
    Diva/devas/diviner (see bashira below (Arab seer, ba sheer ah; messiah?)
    Kiva (Pueblo under/g/round chamber/temple w/ dome roof teya cf tepa/cupola & shipapu hole)
    Estuva (Zuni kiva) from Spanish estufa-stove/heater/tletl, shipapu hole, central column
    Qufa/(Tigris round corracle, cf kophar, gopher, gufa, tepa, Quba(Ar round leather tent)
    Kirk (Scottish church)
    Gereja (Malay church)
    Church (English)

    Huaca (Qechua): spirit, wind?
    Wakkan Tanka (Lakota): great spirit (breath container?)
    Ceylon ka/Sri Lanka (Singhala):
    SaMariTan ka? Samaria, Mari
    Tanakh Heb. bible story 'container'
    kantong: pocket, socket (embayment/cave?)
    tong sampah: garbage can

    hazzan(Hebrew/Tepewa/N)=Cantor/Ecat/l olin(N)=holy wind, e.g., gaita(B/sp)=Eca-itoa(N)=Heck talks(E)=duddlesack/bagpipe,=h/th/t/lazzan= tlaza(N) (from tletl)

    sky: Malay langit, Samoan lani, white sailors = papalani ~ pahana(Hopi: older white brother)
    wind: angin

    nauatl terms - breath

    our breathtehcauh
    he is out of breath; he pants; it pantsihcica
    his breath, his spirit; its essenceihiyo
    breath; spiritihiyotl
    his breath; his spiritihiyotzin
    your breath; your spiritmihiyo
    comoni: ? common, como(Sp) how, comment(Fr) how, macam mana  (Malay), how;
    how-many; macam ini (like this), omni directional loco-motion (place-move) locus(location) focus(Ital fire, Latin hearth) ~ hocus pocus, co-motion/cosmos, modus


    Koshinto: "shin-no-mihashira (sacred central pole)." mitsu (3) bashira 3 pillar torii torii = birds nest on stilts, pillar gateway

    daikoku-bashira is the central pillar of a wooden Japanese-style dwelling. The daikoku-bashira supports the entire structure. Daikoku, a Japanese Buddhist deva god/idol derived from the Hindu war god Mahakala earlier from Shiva

    Yeshiva-Bashira(Jap.central column of Shiva temple)-Bashira(Ar. seer[messenger] of good news)-Misr(Ar. Egypt)-Messiah

     Within the mythology of the Ancient Near East, the Ugaritic de(u/v)ities are said to dwell in encampments .. these "encampments" are referred to as territories or strongholds. Hence, the deities were said to possess their own dwelling and their own territory which they called [msr).  (masra, mastura, masada = tabernacle, t-apa=camp + ngolu structure-r/boundary)

    cf permit/ssion permit [entry 1] msr~mtr
    Origin: late Middle English (originally in the sense "commit, hand over"): from Latin permittere, from per- "through, around" + mittere/mittō ("send" allow/authorize, mission).

    taber/tepe/tipi/teya - te/ti is same as interior/endura/indweller, pe/pi/ya = people/pueblo/public/hub

    Food goddess: Oho-ge-tsu-hime. Remember that aha signifies not only "foam" but "millet"

    22:3 Aha-ji signifies "foam-way," i.e., "the way to Foam (Aha)-Island
    Foam/flue/fire/fuel/plume=bloom/blow=pomum(Turk)/grindmill spindrill, aha-apa/hub/husk
    saho-ki, "pole-trees,"... "The most important mode of divination practised by the primitive Japanese was that of scorching the shoulder-blade of a deer over a clear fire, and finding, omens in the cracks produced by the heat."
    Hi appears to signify "fire" or "sun." Kumaso is properly a compound, Kuma-so, as the district is often mentioned by the simple name of So. Kuma signifies "bear," Turkish candle 

    bast(inner bark of basswood-lime tree used in basketry) bok/birch/bark/cork, vasru-vessel
    sock(sack, pock) + et = socket, pocket, kwok/(Ir)quaich/(ON)kvench=quench, hassock
    kettle(metal pot), vesl
    candle(wax-fats-gras), canasta(sp basket)
    (Atha)baskan, pastel(wax crayons)

    Waketa - Basque friend
    Wakau - Menominee AmerInd friend

    In the Ramayana, it was also known as Lankadweepa, with dweepa meaning "island". From the Ramayana comes the Javanese name Alengko for Ravana's kingdom. Another traditional Sinhala name for Sri Lanka was Lakdiva, with diva also meaning "island".(maldives)  An alternative etymology for the Greek Taprobanê is from the Sanskrit Tambrapani ("great pond" or "pond covered with red lotus"), most likely in association with the great tanks for which Sri Lanka is famed

    The priests of ancient Egypt who maintained shrines along the Nile regarded ritual purity as essential to their ministry. Many of these priests were devotees of Horus and are called "Horites" in the Bible. The Horites were a caste of ruler-priests who maintained high standards of moral behavior.

    Abba Rabbi(H)Imam AbRaHm Ibrahim Brahmin Brahma Rahman
    For Abraham's Horite ancestors, the Sun and the scarab spoke to them of their deity, HR (Horus in Greek). He was regarded with his father Ra as the marker of boundaries. Horo (oros in Greek) refers to boundaries. From horo come the English words hour, horizon and horoscope. Today "horoscope" connotes astrology, but the word originally meant observer of the hours, from hora (time or hour) and skopos (observer or watcher). The Horite priests observed the heavens day and night.

    In the time of Abraham's Nilotic ancestors, the priests of Horus (called "Horites" in the Bible) were dedicated to observation of the planets and constellations. They believed that the pattern of the heavens was mirrored on earth. They observed that the planets and the constellations have an orderly clock-like movement and they perceived as that being the same order on earth. They conceived of this order as fixed and established by the generative force that makes existence possible (logos, ruach, wisdom). The Horite priests were the known earliest astronomers and it is likely that horo is a reference to their celestial archetypes surrounding Horus, the son of Ra, born to Hathor-Meri. Hathor-Meri's animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura (Mbuti endura-spatial inside) Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable.

    The Horites were devotees of HR (Hor, Hur, Har or Horus) whose mother Hathor-Meri conceived miraculously by the overshadowing of the Sun (the Creator's emblem).
    Ruach eloyim means spirit, breath, wind, movement of God. The association of wind with Horus is seen also in the word harmattan, referring to the dry wind that seasonally blows across the Sahara.

    Ancient towers and temples reflect the cosmology of their builders. The differing geometric shapes of the temples of the Horite Sabians (Afro-Arabian Dedanites) associated the hexagon with Saturn, the triangle with Jupiter, the rectangle with Mars, the square with the Sun, the octagon with the Moon, and a triangle within a quadrangle with Venus.

    Fixed Boundaries in Genetics

    The word horotely is used to describe the boundaries of evolutionary change for a given group of plants or animals.  (Biblical anthropology)

    Statue is fake, from 20th century:

    silky nettles from Austria used in Danish burial cloth
    Syria souk, Hebrew sukha/sukhot, English dovecote, Saami goati/kota
    Was Silk road originally Souk road? Probably.

    BaMbuti mongolu-endura (dome enclosure-space)
    Nauatl ocelotl cat god/cave lion (Hebrew Ari-El vs i(s)RaEl)
    Hebrew (oc)Elo(hi)m
    English cell, cf cellulose, kell, shell, bell.