Thursday, March 28, 2013

Phu Quoc Island: bowl boats & 1st dog domestication

Earliest Human Y DNA: Mbo, Cameroon, Africa (Mbuti/mbi-aka/mbo-tswa-na)Bowl boat coracle - woven: Mbotai, Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam (bow/bowl/boat/baskettle)
Fire-Food: Xam- yam (nyummy), clam(ngulam), ham(pig+hound), shellfish(ketam), fish(ikan)

Earliest Human: fire spindrill (from Neanderthal) Xamax/Shamash (lamp/candle/Sumer sun god)
Xam-Mbo-Đằ-ya/Bách Việt (Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè)
Xam+Mbo+tl-ay-a: champa/china=xiongua/cambodia/thai=atalaya/malaya/himba=bimbache(CI)
Earliest dog domestication: Mbotai, Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam; Kampot, Cambodia
Earliest horse domestication: Botai, Caspian-Crimea, Ukraine
click to enlarge

Phu Quoc Ridgebacks

The Phu Quoc Dog is one of three rare dogs with a whorl on its back.
They are famous for hunting and protecting houses, for their friendship and loyalty to owners, and fearlessness against competitors.

  Another point of interest in Phú Quôc is the island's native dog; this dog was originally a wild animal and later trained as a hunting dog by local people. These days they are very domesticated and it's unusual to go anywhere on the island without seeing one of these dogs! These animals have unusually sharp teeth (as they tear their food when they eat it rather than bite) and have claws that over the years have been conditioned for catching their prey and are razor sharp. [Note: the hairless Chinese crested, chihuahua and Peruvian mohawk dogs have unusual teeth, possibly related to the EDAR mutation which causes more eccrine sweat glands, smaller breasts and reduced hair in humans, this might be selected for in starch-digestion amylase production (dogs and humans have greatly increased amylase capacity vs wolves and apes).

An older man on Phu Quoc named Sau Khuong says there were at least three kinds of Phu Quoc ridgebacks a century ago.

One was found in Cua Can, Ba Trai, and Dong Ba and was small, weighed 12-16kg, but was swift and skillful in finding and chasing prey. A second kind was commonly found in Bac Dao and weighed around 20kg. It could bring down large prey like deer and take on wild boars. The smallest was found in Suoi Tranh and Suoi Da.

“It was so small that it could not climb past a fallen trunk but possessed an excellent sense of smell and was ferocious,” Chin Cua Dinh, a hunter and an island native, says.

A pack of hunting dogs has three to six individuals each with different skills like scenting, biting, and chasing. They are usually named after their skills. Thus, when a hunter shouts “Bite it” or “Chase it,” the dog named Bite or Chase would do the job.

Since hunters prefer dogs with colors that could blend into the forest, brown, yellow, grey, and black were the favorites, and white and those with spots are not liked much. Those with dew claws – a vestigial digit on the feet of many mammals -- are not preferred either since they could easily get stuck while hunting.

The leader of a pack must be sensitive to scents in the air to identify prey while the rest are good at picking up scents from the soil. The former therefore have a deep philtrum, the cleft beneath the noses of most mammals while the latter have shallow clefts.

Tapering bodies, deep chests, and shoulders that are lower than their bottoms indicate endurance and animals with these features are ideal for the long chase. Those with straight and slim legs are considered fast.

Hunter Minh Dia says a dog with a well-proportioned ridge running from shoulder to waist is battle-hardened. He also claims it is only good if tails incline left in males and right in females.

A major risk for the purebred Phu Quoc ridgeback comes from the popularity of the Thai ridgeback since some breeders intentionally cross them. Now there are an estimated 800 dogs bred in this manner in Vietnam.

The VKA is considering a ban on Phu-Thai ridgebacks participating in dog shows in Vietnam to protect the purebred Phu Quoc dogs, VKA member Bui Quoc Viet says.

“What we need now is World Canine Organization recognition for a primitive purebred Phu Quoc ridgeback, not for a new race of ridgeback.”

Vietnam has applied to the FCI to register the dog as a “primitive type of hunting dog with a ridge on the back” and it is now under consideration.

Tuoi Tre/Thanh Nien

AT Communication
AT Communication

3W4JK Phu Quoc Island

3w4jk,phu quoc island
SP5APW will be active from Phu Quoc Island (IOTA AS-128) 7-12 March 2012 as 3W4JK
He will be active on 40-6m SSB , RTTY , PSK31
QSL via home call
Phu Quoc Island 3W4JK DX News

Phu Quoc Island 3W4JK

3w4jk , phu quoc island

Codan 2110M-B125 Military Base Radio

Codan 2110M-B125 Military Base Station

Phu Quoc Island Vietnam

Travel Wallpapers
Karte von | map of Vietnam

Are these bowl boats (Vietnamese: Thung Chai) masted for sails, parasols, nets or rudder oars? Note the red lights on top, probably for night fishing, including squid.

Phu Quoc island is mountainous within a fairly flat lowland region of the Tonle Sap lake and Mekong delta. Phu Quoc, known as Koh Tral by Cambodians (Cambodia is only 12-15 km away), is the largest island of Vietnam. Situated in the Gulf of Thailand, the island is part of Kiên Giang province.  Duong Dong, halfway up the western coast, is a pleasant, unremarkable seaport with several 'nuoc mam' (fish sauce) factories (and Dinh Cau, a temple to the Whale God, full of skeletons of whales and other marine mammals used by cult devotees). Kampot is just eastwards in mainland Cambodia also grows black pepper on its mountainsides.

Quoc means national, I haven't found what the meaning of Phu Quoc is.

Diving around Phu Quoc island: north end 10m deep, south end 40m deep

Gulf of Thailand: A semi-enclosed extension of the South China Sea, the Gulf of Thailand lies between the Malay Peninsula and Indochina. Its shallow waters are largely fed by fresh river water inflow, principally from the Chao Phraya River. This river input gives the surface waters a relatively low salinity, while salt water from the main part of the South China Sea only enters deep down, pooling in areas deeper than 160 ft (50 m). Coral reefs thrive in the warm water, and there is a strong tourist industry based around good dive sites, such as the island of Ko Samui. Mangrove forests provide a buffer between land and sea along much of the coast, offering a habitat to many marine organisms

21ka - 8ka  During the last Ice Age much of the Sunda Shelf of the South China Sea region was above sea level, with rainforest, wetlands and savanna: Indian wolf, genetically closest to dogs,  Coppinger: "My argument is that what domesticated—or tame—means is to be able to eat in the presence of human beings. That is the thing that wild wolves can't do."[15]

Phu Quoc dogs, being long islanded smallish Asian wolves lost some of their predatorial nature/fear (cf dodo bird) before being domesticated/domed by humans. Women made and owned the dome huts/boats, allowed a favored female dog (bitch) subordinate status (protector against rape/theft of food supply), male humans had to bring food to woman for status/sex/domeshelter, while male wolfdogs were excluded from the dome but favorites were allowed/fed around the area during bitch's estrus which selected for social control.  In Africa and west Asia/Europe, this changed, due to preferences of dogs especially for both bowl-boat/sled pulling and hunting, such as the "ari" Hottentot ridgeback hunting dog and Congo pygmy's basenji, these were sources of large/fierce northern dogs(mastiff/misatim~basenji/bay-bark+anjin/gou=dingo)

In 2008, re-examination of material excavated from Goyet Cave in Belgium in the late 19th century resulted in the identification of a 31,700 year old dog, a large and powerful animal who ate reindeer, musk oxen and horses. This dog was part of the Aurignacian culture that had produced the art in Chauvet Cave.[22][23]
In 2010, the remains of a 33,000 year old dog were found in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia.[24][25] DNA analysis published in 2013 affirmed that it was more closely related to modern dogs than to wolves.[26] In 2011, the skeleton of a 26,000 to 27,000 year old dog was found in the Czech Republic.
Check out the "Sa'Och Por" or "Samre Pear" Negrito people of Chanthaburi Thai/Cambodia, possibly link of bow/abu/boat/beo/port/board/Mbo/Botai/bolt/bury/body/potl


  1. ...part of the early slave trade, the Pear=Par(Fr)=pal(N)=(bound)for(market).
    Coatl(N/5 Tonalamatl))=coatl(N)=tool of copper
    with wodden handle; type of shovel or azadón(sp)=
    ...tok(P)=boat=potli(N),=toca(N)=to/our being/ca,=tloc(N)=beside,=dock/locate.
    ...khos(P)=charcoal(E)=kh/ch/Coatl(N/5 Tona).
    timaloa(N)=supperate(pun), e.g., boil&boil=
    ...khmuc(P)=die,=kh/k/ca muchi(N)=being all.
    ...ches(P)=deer,=ce(N)=one offering=uentli(N)=
    ciervo/cerf, but, chia/chie/ochix(N)=to wait
    for someone, e.g., oc xic-chia(N)=wait a bit.
    ...hauc(P)=die,=h/th/toca(N)=sow and bury, e.g.
    le tocó(sp)=it touched him.
    ...poul(P)=drunk,=poliuhqui(N)=pulque/polluted,and, potli(N)=pool(E).
    tleco(N)=to rise/leg. of unkn. origin says
    ...thuk/touk(P)=East(where Sun rises),=to/our
    being/ca, tonalli(N)=soul of our Universe.
    ...BeOThuk=be/peua Ollin Toca(N)=begins in
    the Holy East/Our Being, say the Toniit.
    tleco(N)=to rise/leg/location.
    ...toun(P)=egg,=Tonatiuh(N)=the yolk Sun.
    (N)=to know,=ma/oma(N)=hunt land/sea with net=
    ...jan(P)=gibbon,=yani(N)=pilgrim, uan(N)=
    relation(to be frank).
    ...hak(P)=give,=maca(N)=hand be,=h/th/t/tlaca=
    body, in Nauatl.
    ...tou(P)=go,=-to(N/verb declension=towards)=
    to go/ir(sp).
    ...ti(P)=hand=h/th/t/tlan d/tli=tlantli(N)=
    (E)=te(J)=hand,=aite(J)=mate/spouse, ai(J)=love/blue=matlalli(N)=netland.
    Pears speak SeaLang, shipped in by Japanese/
    Arab Sea people, cf., Cema Naga(Assam), who
    underwent similar pillage.

  2. ...Pearic:
    ...kantun(P)=rabbit,=ka/ca tonatiuh(N)=sun being
    ...kos(P)=hawk,=Cozcacuauhtli(N/16 Tona)=king
    ...chil(P)=heart/mind,=chilli(N)=red pepper.
    nami(J)=wave/billow,=-nami(J/sfx)=treat someone as one of the family.
    ...tao(P)=pod/ear,=tlaolli(N)=take corn off
    the cob,=tha(Otomitl Amerind=otome(J)=maiden)=
    ...rap(P)=wash,=r/tlapacatl(N)=lavar ropa(sp)/

  • "note eliding (l)of ko(l)ko, the k/g shift of ko(l)ko/go(l)go. .."

    pukul (Malay) beat (gong/clock)
    pulku (Lapp) boat (pulled sledboat)
    pulling makes path = direction
    punting/poking = suck(el)ing out/in, socket

    harpoon hook-barb + punt/spoon?


  • ...suck(E)=tzocatl(N)=sugar(E)=azucar(sp).
    ...poling(E)=each of 2 points in celestial/ocelot(N/14 Tonalamatl)=sphere,=potli(N)=
    pool/punt/pull/both forward and back, side to side,=

  • "...thim(P)=cook=icuci/cuxtia/ixca/oicac(N),=
    timaloa(N)=supperate(pun), e.g., boil&boil=

    Thimbu River, roiling whitewater to Bhutan
    Himba(ghee-jelled-greased hair)/Tibet(ghee-oiled bowlboat yakskin)/Himalaya(rim(e)-layered/land)

    "...ches(P)=deer,=ce(N)=one offering=uentli(N)=
    ciervo/cerf, but, chia/chie/ochix(N)=to wait
    for someone, e.g., oc xic-chia(N)=wait a bit. "

    ches, cf schield, wait at river (on shore or in bowlboat) for deer/horses to swim river, use punt-pole with end loop to slip over its head (but not strangle) cf lariat la riat/lasso/(Lhasa?)/toss(tos(P) head) (later cowboys on horses hand(h)eld rope "spoke"=punt, keeping a circle of rope spinning by partial twisting it in palm cf Chinese circle/wheel=gulu, net=gu; Malay 10 =se-pulu = punt + hoop = 1 + 0); pony-polo

    nami(J)=wave/billow,=-nami(J/sfx)=treat someone as one of the family"

    Namaqualand(Botswana) = Nagaland(Assam) = NamViet(old name)=Nam Yueh(Chin)~Yueh Zhi(PIE Toch?)
    Han/Xionghua vs Hun/Xiongnu


    suc = hair = fiber(hemp/kemp) of rope loop(cycle=socket) tossed/cassok-khazakh = Botai/XmBotlay/Khampa horse herders

    Kokonor: Kham homeland; Numerous rivers, including the Mekong, Yangtze, Yalong Jiang, and the Salween flow through Kham.!i=549014374&k=4r3nrL8!i=447036476&k=RcftrgR
    Bhotia people, Cham dances, Kham horsemen, turquoise
  •  Cham Island, offshore central Vietnam

  • Guanche (Canari island language), Dravidian/Cham-Xambotlaya:

    BimbacheA people from Hierro Vin-bach ("Land of the Brave")
    Canarias"Island of the Dogs" Cham-ari ("Island of Cham") 3
    Chenech (or Chinech or Achinech)Local name of TenerifeChe-nek ("Pure Land") 4
    Echeyde (Teyde)"The Luminous One"Ecch-eyd or Chey-ide ("The White (or Fiery or Shiny) Mountain")
    GomeraOne of the CanariesGomeda ("Fat Cattle") 5
    GuacimaraName of a royal princessKaci-mara ("Golden Beauty")
    Guanche(See note 6)Cham-che ("The Golden Heroes") 6
    3) Pliny, in his Natural History, affirms that the name of "Canaria" derives from the many dogs found on the island (Canis, in Latin). This is an exoterism, and the name indeed derives from that of Cham, the patriarch of the Chamites (or Ethiopians), the fallen ones. In reality, the word Cham means precisely the same as "Ethiopian" or "burnt-faces". The Dravidian etyms of the word Cham are highly enlightening. The word means both "artificer", "smith", "architect", as well as "fallen", destroyed", "dead", "terminated". Both in Dravida and in the Biblical tradition, the name of Cham is also interpreted as meaning "dog", "doggish".
    The suffix ari- of "Canary" means "island", "cliff", "rock", in Dravida, and implies the idea of a sunken land whose peaks remained above the water. Hence, the Canaries are the Island of the Artificers who engendered Creation; the Fallen Angels or Nephelim, who "fell" (or died or were exterminated) at the end of their era, becoming damned dogs. In other words, the Guanches are "the People of Cham" (Guan-che or Cham-che), an etym (etymology)not unrelated to that of "Dog" and to that of the Canaries. (See Note 6, below).
    No, canari from Cham ari from XamBa Ari (people dog, or people of the dog, = arian/ainu/arinu/kenari/canari)
    From German Dziebel's blog Anthropogeny: Dogs, yaks, people domesticationGokcumen et al. (2013) have identified a few interesting facts. First, contrary to the earlier accounts of “Neandertal admixture” in the human genome that failed to detect traces of it among African foragers, they found NE1 in 13% of their Mbuti Pygmy sample. This is precisely what out-of-America II predicts: modern humans with roots in a Eurasian hominin such as Neandertals or Denisovans colonized every remote corner of the world, including the African tropics. Second, they
    “found that variation within African NE1 haplotypes is significantly higher than variation within Asian and European NE1 haplotypes (p<10 sup="">−15

    )….”But despite the higher variation within African NE1 haplotypes, the frequency of those haplotypes are the highest outside of Africa and, especially in America. This means that diversity is no indication of a population’s age. Plain simple. It’s likely that it shows the relaxation of a selective constraint in this region and the corresponding increase in mutation rate, which is something to be expected from a regulatory gene. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) metrics seem to support this interpretation (Amerindians again not represented):
    “To understand the genomic composition upstream of the APOBEC3 locus, we first examined the phase I SNP data from the 1000 Genomes Project and identified an unusually strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) block spanning approximately 36 kb (NE1 locus, hg18 – chr22:37,600,063–37,636,026). This LD block is evident in Eurasian (CEU and CHB/JPT) populations but is absent in the Yoruban (YRI) population.”
    The increase of genetic diversity as a result of the relaxation of selective constraints is something that is well described for some of modern humans’ companion species such as domesticated dogs and domesticated yaks following the domestication. A similar process must have affected their owners, too.

  • Wednesday, March 20, 2013

    Bowed/Boat Hook: Beothuk

    magal(PB), magan(Heb magan david=shield of david), mongolu(Mb)...wickershields/windsails evolved from round fleshy/leathery door flaps
    Portuguese navigator Fernão de Magalhães

    mami/n(PB) mammary

    "...marc(proto-Basque)=1.pruning hook(for dressing vines),2.tongs/pincers (for harvesting and opening chestnuts/castaños),=matxar/matxarda/matxarde (Guipuzkoa)=2,=matoxaua(N)=podar los arboles/prune trees,=maitl toxaua(N)= mat(o)xar(ua)=matoxoa(N)=rub/scratch one's hands." tletl
    pruning hook: Acción de podar/prune - de los árboles/forest tree/orchard/vine.
    • Pruning-hook -> podón, márcola, corvillo
    ard: originally a plowstick with sharp internal arch at bottom to scratch soil like claw, also used to scythe, with inserted slate blades. later complex ards
    turkish: budamak, kesmek, kısaltmak,

    Hungary fishing

    gaf hook, loggers pike, gig-gag?

    bow & arrow tat/dart/oar/arwe/ard
    bowed - bowt boat
    Beothuk word list
    abdobish - cable
    abemite - fish net
    abideshhook - lynx (claw?)
    abobidwess - eagle feather
    abodoneek - hat
    adadimite - fishing lure, bait (atlatlim?
    addaboutik - we are red
    adenishit - star
    aduth - harpoon
    adoltkhtek - boat
    adosuk - 8
    adothook - fish hook
    aduse - leg
    adyouth - foot
    ahune - stone
    aguathoonet - whetstone
    amet - wake
    amina - spear
    annoo-ee - forest tree
    anyemen - bow
    appawet - seal
    ahsa-bu-ut - blood
    ashwameet - red ochre
    ashwogin - arrow
    ass-soyt - to anger
    aszik-dtounouk - 20
    home - baetha (H beth/beit)
    basdic - smoke
    bathuk - rainwater
    bebadwook - flies/mosq.
    berroik - cloud
    bethoeote - good nioght
    bidissoni - stick, sword
    boad - thumb
    boobishat - fire
    boubashan - its hot
    bouguishaman - white folk (strange spirits?)
    boutonet - teeth
    bouzawet - sleep
    by-yeetch - birch
    boyish - birchbark
    bukashaman - man
    camtac - speak
    dabseek - 4
    dabsook - 14
    dattomesh - trout
    egg - debine
    to cut/saw - dedduweet
    dee-cradou - big boat

    from tletl comments:
    FYI, El Salvador: Cerén (volcano ash covered)

    • They found tremendous quantities of a root crop (malanga, a relative of taro) that previously had not been associated with Maya agriculture. They found another "invisible" crop of manioc alongside the more anticipated fields of maize, and they found grasses no longer in existence on the modern-day El Salvador landscape.

    • They made what is thought to be the first discovery of a Maya kitchen, complete with intensively planted household garden. "We could tell what was planted around the houses," Lentz says. "This is fabulous because people have long debated how the Maya did all this. Now we have a real example."

    • They found a household with more than 70 ceramic pots, many used to store beans, peppers and other plant matter. Having that many vessels in one home was an unusual discovery for what is thought to be a small, farming village. Lentz likened it to having four or five sets of China in a typical American home.

    • They found large plots of neatly rowed land, evidence of ridge and furrow agriculture. Lentz also posits that the people of Cerén surrounded their homes with orchard trees. These discoveries seemingly debunk the common theory that the Maya employed a slash-and-burn agriculture method.

    • They found a raised, paved pathway called a "sacbe," which was used by the Maya for ceremonial and commercial purposes.

    ... bowed/boat/bottle/pottery
    1. ...sacbe(M)=iztac ue(N)=white big/way.
      ...bow/flow/plow/bower/flower/poa or poua/opouh
      (N)=the flute fuego fuel fuelle fuigo(J)word,
      hmmm, not flute/pauilia(N)=limn, but fue(J).
      ...Beothuk=Peua/Potli Toca(N)=begin both/brother
      Breeding/toca(N)=sow and bury. their history included mammoth hunting, cf., their seal/whale
      hunting with detachable points, their canoes are skin with high prows, viking style.
      descendents of the Solutrean peoples, 22k BCE,
      best flint knappers in the world. fire was lit
      by knocking 2 rocks together for chitoni/spark,
      cf., kitten. Ozero/Ocelotl/oc(r)e/och(r)e means
      they go back to original Fire Drill Flame hole.
    2. ...mayana(N)=to be hungry. makes one wonder what Mayan called themselves, as this Nauatl verb is laid on after their famine. roots and house gardens are resorted to when the frail corn crop fails. too much rain brings the fungus, Cuitlacoche(N)=when the corn sleeps/couches=cochi/ococh(N)shitty/cuitlatl, which eats the grain, and drought withers seed in ground, or elotl(N)on the stalk.
  • Botocudo: extinct Brazil tribe with Polynesian mtDNA

    Baja Calif. Pericu ~ parical bowl boat?
    Brazil Botocudo ~ boat + cudo/cuon-dog/coondog/hounddog?
    1. ...boto/boat/boot(E/German for boat)/punt/pont/
      pond/puddle=potli(N)=both, brother(E). pool/foot/
  • "Beothuk ...peatha(B)=pelt(E)=petla(N). Newfoundland isolate deer tribe, the Toniit/ Tonatiuh(E). ...woin(B/reversal)=in wo/own/ua(N)=wa(Japanese)=hoop/link, wa(Chi-na)= language, uvin(Beothuk/reversal)=in uva/oua(Breton)=ua(N)=own(E). ...baetha(B)=go home"

    Beothuk = bowed (woven) hook (wic) ~ hooped pelt(belld-belt, also bark of paper birch for cone hut)

    pelt:(noun skin/verb throw (throw(grow) down roots))

    in-uva ~ en-dura?
  • Odemen(Beothuk) - red earth
    Edom (Heb Bethlhem) - red earth

    beothuk/bethlehem/peltham?(OE?)=bed-hook(roll)=hammock(Carib/Taino sling bed))=hem-hook

    note: early bed was rolled down rug/pelt in cold, but slung up in hot Brazil/Carib.

    throw/grow/spew/sipa(takraw)/split/pair roots divide/break egg into 2
  • ooish (Beo) lips
    memasuk (Beo) tongue

    memasak (Malay) cook
    memasuk (Malay) enter

    podebeek (Beo) paddle
    pugatoit (Beo) to throw
    poochowhat (Beo) bed

    woasut (Beo) woman
    wanita (Malay) woman

    shapok (Beo) candle
    shamash (Heb) oil lamp/lighter

    washgeesh (Beo) moon
    woodamashi (Beo) messenger, run away