Friday, December 21, 2012

Koro-pok guru & Ainu

The name is traditionally analysed as a tripartite compound of kor or koro ("butterbur plant"), pok ("under, below"), and kur or kuru ("person") and interpreted to mean "people below the leaves of the butterbur plant" in the Ainu language.
The Ainu believe that the koro-pok-guru were the people who lived in the Ainu's land before the Ainu themselves lived there. They were short of stature, agile, and skilled at fishing. They lived in pits with roofs made from butterbur leaves.
Interesting that the butterbur has rhubarb-like leaves (if flame-red colored, it would be significant linguistically), and roots treat migraines.
In Malay/Indonesian, guru is teacher (from Hindi), but gua is cave/hole, (Chinese cave: gua), while gula (sweet sap/sugar), getah (latex sap) are tapped from holes in trees. In Malay, tree is pokok. It is possible the dwarfs were proto-Malay negritos that had spread along coasts from Ryukyu.
Pygmies in African Congo roof their dome huts with mongongo leaf shingles, those in Andamans used ailanthus leaves, those in No. Australia used banana leaves.
Bambuti Congo pygmies call their dome huts mongolu, Innuit call theirs igloo/igdlu.
Indian bowlboat: harigolu, Indian hut: bungalo, English column/(d)well/wheel/curve
Note that pygmy huts had only a low doorway, european male explorers had to bellycrawl to enter, I think igloos were like that, in order to keep warmth in, with only a qidlic [kindle-wick/light] bowl of seal oil to cook with.
The Chinese called Japan land of the brown dwarfs, that name may have preceded both Ainu and Yayoi migrants.
bow bracers (and arm splints) were also made of birch bark

From Human migrations yahoo group:

 'Notes of the Kurils Islands by Captain Snow
1897', John Milne wrote:

"The Koro-pok-guru [gh: "dwellers in holes" - pit house dwellers] kept to the
same style of dwelling they used in the far north, even when they pushed their
way into a much milder climate.

The Ainu, following their old custom, still
built their style of house [gh: made of grass or reeds lashed upon a framework
of wood] when they got into the more rigorous climate of Yezo and the Kurils,
notwithstanding it is suitable only for a warm or mild climate."

I just came across a reference to an increase in bird remains at 6,700 BP on
Mink Island - "Ocean Bay" culture:

"Although Ocean Bay occupations in the
Lower Midden span 7500 to 4100 cal B.P., bird remains
were only recovered from levels dated between
6700 and 4100 cal B.P.

Later archaeological finds in the Aleutians belong to the Aleutian tradition
(McCartney, 1984). The bifacial flake technology is radically different from the
earlier Anangula materials

 slate ulu blades ? [DD: slate/flint/flay/fletch/split/separate fur/felt from skin/pelt]

Aleutian mummy: "The wrappings were removed sequentially. The outer five were
> animal skins, probably seal or sea otter. The innermost layer was an
> eiderdown parka composed of numerous bird skins sewn together,
> with the feathers on the inside, and a yellow fur collar with black spots"

 Furthermore, a caribou skin is of a suitably large size, and its surface
of a fairly uniform quality. Accordingly, large coat parts, stretching from the
hood to the coat tails, can be cut from a single caribou skin.

Mon Khmer & Hmong Mien: related to monsoon/mongolu/monday/moon/manu-anu/mene/Burmen?

 The Ainu and the Ryukyuan are tightly clustered with 100% bootstrap probability followed by the Mainland Japanese in the phylogenetic trees of East Eurasian populations.

Origin of Sumerians: (cf Suomea)
The Sumerians initial migration presumably
began with a persistent drought in their original (Turkmen) homeland, that eventually
forced them to abandon their home migrate and resettle in the southern fertile
lands of the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and eventually
further south near the banks of Nile River in north east Africa.
Results reveal that 92% of Chamorros belong to haplogroup E, also found in ISEA
but rare in Oceania. The two most numerous E lineages were identical to lineages
currently found in Indonesia, while the remaining E lineages differed by only
one or two mutations and all were unique to the Marianas. Seven percent of the
lineages belonged to a single Chamorro-specific lineage within haplogroup B4,
common to ISEA as well as Micronesia and Polynesia.

These patterns suggest a small founding population had reached and settled the
Marianas from ISEA by 4,000 ybp, and developed unique mutations in isolation. A
second migration from ISEA may have arrived around 1,000 ybp, introducing the
latte pillars, rice agriculture and the homogeneous minority B4 lineage."\

 The best example
is the presence of composite bows in the left (wisdom) hands of wrathful deities
in Buddhist mandalas. This exact iconographic convention in Navajo
sandpaintings pegs their origin to the introduction of the sinew-backed bow
during the middle CE (the weapon arrived in the SW around 1200-1300 CE). On the
Asian side, the spread of Buddhist iconographic conventions out of India from
south to north is well documented (with some syncretic borrowings from Chinese
geomancy) -- there is no credible claim to the antiquity of these highly
formalized traditions in Tibet prior to the seventh century. The really
elaborate traditions are traditionally ascribed to the Second Diffusion of
Buddhism which was later still.

"The parallels between complex ceremonialism in the Old and New Worlds (Apachean
and Tibetan) cannot possibly be paleo in origin -- their shared iconographic
conventions and ritual scripts are much too close to represent millennia of
divergence, and are clearly rooted in historical timeframes."

But cultural connections around the globe are full of such direct parallels.
E.g., Hornbostel noted how similar windpipe instruments are in Oceania and
Amazonia and these days ethnologists have even invented the term "Melazonia" as
an emblem of a nexus of striking similarities in music and ritual between the
two areas. Those are not of Bronze Age. Those are old. And going back to my
example from mythology: North American-West African parallels are very specific.
Or another example: the kind of creature that dives for the earth in the Earth
Diver myth is identical between Muskogean versions and Munda versions, and
these are unique links not shared by Siberian and North American versions of the
You make some good points -- I too regard Algic-Athapaskan fusion as the prime
suspect for numerous shared molecular markers (shared descent is much less
likely for a number of reasons). I am pretty sure that the Pacific Coast
Athapaskan migration was a shared Algic-Athapaskan move from the Plateau in the
last 800 years, and for all intents and purposes, there are no major cultural
differences between Hupa and Yurok for example, and no way to distinguish them
archaeologically in CA/OR.

Likewise, I see the Southern cordillera/Plateau boundary as being a key area in
early dispersals of Athapaskans, with the closest northern group to Apacheans
being found in the Sekani and their Sarcee offshoots (all of whom have fish
aversion, in contradistinction to more northerly groups). But this area cannot
be the Proto-Athapaskan homeland because there are a number of ways Plateau
Athapaskans are atypical, particularly in their funerary practices. Alaskan
Dene and Apacheans are equally averse to corpses, while the Carrier are
diametrically opposite, indicating the influence of Plateau crematory customs
upon local Dene

Mapping Mongolia" (edited by Sabloff, 2011,
and on pp. 130-131 it says:

"Mongolian Bronze Age Chandman and Mongol Hunnu (Xiongnu) appeared similar to
modern Native Americans from the Great Lakes regions, as well as prehistoric
Archaic Period individuals from North America (Brace et al. 2001; Seguchi 2004).
Interestingly, the Mongolian Chandman sample was not closely related to the
roughly contemporaneous Chinese Bronze Age sample from Anyang."

--- In, "josephapw" wrote:

[...] Likewise, Proto-Athapaskan-Eyak "metal knife" (beesh/mesh/wesh) appears to
be a trans-Eursasian loan word, post-Bronze Age in origin, cognate with I-E
"metal". Present at the proto-language level, this word in and of itself is
striking. Both sinew backed bows and hot-forged copper daggers (with
double-spiraled pommels) gained wide distribution after the mid Common Era, and
do not extend much east of Na-Dene turf. Morphologically similar daggers (in
bronze and iron, not copper) are associated with SW Siberian putatively
Yeniseian archaeological cultures. [...]

Since the Gwich'in dagger is dated to "1850 or earlier", may I ask how you have
excluded it and the ones similar to it as being products of trade? I'm looking
at Colin F Taylor's 'Native American Weapons', p. 46, where a similar dagger
(spiral pommels, at least) is described as a "trade knife". What is your
perspective on this? Gisele

Thursday, December 6, 2012

Ulama: learning to play life

Ulama (no-hand volleyball, Mexico) is very similar to sepak takraw (no hand volleyball, Malaysia).

...cemitta(N)=center look/itta(N)= ithua(N/lowlands)=semilla(sp)=seed.
...the Semites(Arab/Jew, common ancestor,
Abrahm), e.g., David=D/Tlauiz(N)=the Dawn(E)=
first Jewish King, began as grain merchants,
which they still are to this day.
...if you have the first 5 letters of C/Semite/
cemit(N), you look no further.
...Shabat(H)=xapotla(N)=to deflower/seduce, i.e., when Yahweh finished making Earth, he didn't rest, he had sex with his creation,
still a tradition among the faithful.
endura(Mb) (c)enter/chanter(sing around center fire (apa))
quell (German) source: mongolu(Mb), menguelu, quell
apa shabbath/sabbah/abba/saba
heel(foot) keel(boat)
totem/do odem
team mate
atimwa (team of sled dogs)
komatic (shed/sled + dog team)
kemosabe allie

Tuesday, October 30, 2012


Ditty bag
Duty bag
Goody bag
"Waltzing matilda"

Ancient bags with a single shoulder strap or fore-head tumpline attached as a single string would tend to rock and spin while being carried by a walker, resulting in twining of the cord. Jittering, jiggling, dithering, tethering etc.


rucksac (Swed ruck=cruikback)


fire pyre/a/o
apa hi = api
pahit = bitter/burnt
ap aih gn ah ait

muatlimuat: molimo, bambuti, atlatl, malamute, atimwa, mbuat

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

1300BC, Aten/Adonai, Just/Jasher, Quetzalcoatl?

During the exploration of Egypt, a puzzle emerged along the Nile River: a singular ancient city

that had been hastily abandoned to the desert. The site dated to the mid 1300’s BCE (the height of New

Kingdom Egypt) and became known as Amarna (named for the local Beni Amran tribe).

Unusual discoveries here included cuneiform tablets (the Amarna letters), written in a “peripheral

Akkadian” vernacular spoken in the Levantine cities of the former Hyksos and their relatives to the north.

Even more unusual was the “Amarna art” found in the city. Unlike the idealized royal icons customary in

ancient Egypt, Amarna was decorated with naturalistic portraits emphasizing the individuality of the

king’s family and retinue.

Absent from Amarna were images of Egypt’s ancient pantheon. Instead, this abandoned city had

been dedicated to the more abstract “Aten,” symbolized by the sun’s orb extending its rays.


Examination of texts and monuments revealed this as the lost city of Akhetaten (“Horizon of the

Aten”), freshly built for the “rebel pharaoh” Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti. The iconoclastic

Akhenaten had opposed the wealthy and influential priesthood of Egypt by closing temples, removing the

names of the gods from monuments, and even forbidding use of the plural term “gods.” Known in life as

“Living in Ma’at” (Justice or Truth), he was later remembered only as the “Criminal of Akhetaten.”

After Akhenaten’s rule ended in unknown circumstances, his name was erased from all future

king lists. Traditional polytheism was then re-established under Tutankhamun (“King Tut”) and the

former vizier Ay.

2 Despite helping the return to Egyptian customs, the names of Tut and Ay were also

omitted from Egyptian records for their association with the “rebel pharaoh.”

Saturday, October 6, 2012

Maya ball court towers,queen
the ancient Mayas built watchtower-style structures atop the ceremonial ball court (built around 864 A.D.) at the temples of Chichen Itza to observe the equinoxes and solstices...The bases of the structures — essentially, look-out boxes set atop the walls, each one with a small slit running through it ... confirmed that the sun shone through the slit-like openings when the setting sun touches the horizon at the winter solstice. The sun's rays also formed a diagonal pattern at the equinox in the slit-like openings, which are about tall enough to stand up in.

cf watchtowers of great wall of china, elephants as mobile watchtowers, red banners on Ind. elephants, AmerInd smoke-fire signals

Lady of Kaan (koan/kohen/khan/goshen/kachina...)
Archaeologists in Guatemala have discovered the tomb of Lady K'abel, a seventh-century Maya Holy Snake Lord considered one of the great queens of Classic Maya civilization. The tomb was discovered during excavations of the royal Maya city of El Peru-Waka' in northwestern Peten, Guatemala... "People of Waka"  K'abel, considered the greatest ruler of the Late Classic period, ruled with her husband, K'inich Bahlam, for at least 20 years (672-692 AD), Freidel says. She was the military governor of the Wak kingdom for her family, the imperial house of the Snake King, and she carried the title "Kaloomte'," translated to "Supreme Warrior," higher in authority than her husband, the king. (ANI)
(K'abel-cain & abel, khabar(M)news=kabbala(Heb)
(Kinich-Kenichi(J)1st born

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Mangrove leaves - shingles, salt, omega 3 oils

Mangrove leaves may have been used as shingles on ancient dome huts, just as mongongo leaves are gathered and stacked for use as shingles on dome huts in the Congo rainforest by Bambuti pygmies. Mongongo trees produce large round leaves useful for sheathing domes, as well as the tasty & nutritrious nuts favored by both humans and apes; various coastal mangrove species produce large round leaves and fruits as well as abundant honeybee honey and are usually well fertilized by nocturnal fruit bats. People at the coasts may have exchanged such 'gifts' with people in the interior.

Many mangroves have leaves with special evapotranspiration pores which extrude salt that dries on the leaf surface, these may have been collected for use as dome shingles, and could have been the initial source of the salt trade, coastal people bringing stacks of salty leaves inland to trade with river people for freshwater-related inland forest items.

Omega 3 oils are beneficial for human esp. infant brain functioning, cold-water fish (tuna, salmon) contain high amounts of these oils. Gupta et al have found high levels of Omega 3 oils in a slime-algae protist which live on mangrove leaves, perhaps licking or cooking these salty leaves by archaic humans also gave them omega oils?

Omega-3 biotechnology: Thraustochytrids as a novel source of omega-3 oils

(Hat trip to Rob Dudman for links)

Saturday, September 29, 2012

Mammoth Herding 101

Sheep herder: shepherd
Mammoth herder: mahout (also Indian elephant herder)

Mammoths are most closely related to Indian elephants, then to African elephants, then to manatees (tusked sea cows), then to hyraxes (hooved squirrel like animals), all Afrotherian descendants.

In central Asia, mammoths ate fruits from natural orchards (apple/apricots/plums/cherries/pears/citrons), marshland sedges & reed stems & rhyzomes, steppe grasses, woodland tree mast & bast (especially fire-burnt carmelized inner bark), mosses, annual flowers & seed berries/pulses (buttercups, gorse). They travelled seasonally from northern siberia southerly to the Himalayan highlands.

Tamil: mamoti (man = earth, vetti = spade)
Yakut: mamma (earth) (story of earth-burrowing mole-like mammoths is derived from mammoths using their tusks as spades to unearth tubers/bundles of grasses and perhaps snow shovels to scrape off snow crust from food.
English: manatee (manatus = hand, Latin)
Hebrew: behemoth (giant beast, water related)
Nias Behu: megalithic elephant cf batu gajah megalithic stone elephant (3 heads = head & tusks, 4 pillars = ele legs)

In Memorium
Phillip Vallentine Tobias: October 14, 1925­June 7, 2012
Frederick E Grine & Peter S Ungar 2012
Evol Anthrop doi 10.1002/evan.21326

"If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of giants." (mammoths)

This phrase, immortalized by Sir Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke
dated February 5, 1675, takes on a special and bitterly poignant meaning
in the context of the passing of Phillip Tobias.
Newton was, of course, paraphrasing, with considerable abbreviation, the
translation of the statement by John of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres, who
wrote in his Metalogicon, or Defense of the Trivium (1159):
"Nos esse quasi nanos, gigantium humeris insidentes, ut possimus plura eis
et remotiora videre, non utique proprii visus acumine, aut eminentia
corporis, sed quia in altum subvenimur et extollimur magnitudine
["We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more
than they, and things at a greater distance, not by virtue of any
sharpness of sight on our part, or any physical distinction, but because
we are carried high and raised up by their giant size."]
We imagine that Phillip would probably have appreciated not only the
fullness of John's prose, but also its melodiousness in the original

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Hummingbirds: Flying backwards efficiently

According to Dr Sapir, the most important finding of the study was that flying backwards uses a similar amount of energy to flying forwards, both of which were more efficient than hovering.

[Hummingbirds swivel their wrists in a figure 8 pattern, while other birds swivel their shoulders.]

He continued, "During backward flight, the bird's body is held in [a] much more upright posture. We were expecting the body will experience a much higher drag and that the bird will need to invest much more work to overcome this drag."

Further investigation using life-sized models determined that drag during backward flight is only slightly higher than when the bird is flying forward.

"[This is] probably because drag forces are relatively negligible at flight in relatively slow airspeeds, as characterising backward flight," he said.
High speed hummers beat jets
Bird flight based on single angle flapping

Saturday, September 22, 2012

Namakw Nomadic Dome(s)tic

A possible tie-in
kusa/kosa/kosei cf khoi-khoi-san of namakwa/kalahari SW Africa
 "noma/nomatka/nomatzinco(Nauatl)=forever" cf namakwa/nomadic/dome(s)tic

The Khoe-San people of southern Africa, who speak a language based on

clicking sounds, are descendants of the most ancient genetic split

found yet in living humans, finds an international group of


The results also reveal some of the evolutionary changes that helped

give rise to modern humanity.

Anatomically modern humans (us), evolved about 200,000 years ago in

Africa. Differences between people living today and our evolutionary

relatives include much less pronounced eyebrow ridges and larger


Much remains uncertain about how modern humans originated in Africa's

cradle of humanity. For instance, researchers had long thought humans

arose in eastern Africa, but recent studies hint at roots in southern

Africa. [Image Gallery: Our Closest Human Ancestor]

Khoe-San genes

To help uncover the origins of humanity, scientists analyzed genetic

variations across 220 individuals from 11 different populations in

southern Africa to explore their relationships and commonalities.

Approximately 2.3 million DNA variations were analyzed per person.

The investigators found the earliest diversification event in the

history of all humans occurred about 100,000 years ago. That is well

before modern humans migrated out of Africa and about twice as old as

the divergences of central African Pygmies and East African

hunter-gatherers and from other African groups, said researcher Carina

Schlebusch at Uppsala University in Sweden.

The descendants of this split are the Khoe-San people, the two

hunter-gatherer ethnic groups who are known for speaking with clicks

and share many other traits. Historically, the Khoe were pastoralists,

employing domesticated sheep and cattle, while the San were


It remains uncertain what exactly made the Khoe-San diverge and become

genetically isolated from other African groups.Still, "the African

continent is large, and there are geographic barriers to gene

flow,"researcher Mattias Jakobsson, also of Uppsala University, told


"Another factor that might play a role in the isolation of African

populations is also the cycling of the ice ages," Schlebusch told

LiveScience."In Africa, you get stages of really arid conditions with

ice ages and we see population contractions."

The scientists aren't sure the purposes of the genetic variations that

set the Khoe-San apart. The extent to which each gene variation shapes

what people are like physically "is very, very hard to understand at

this stage," researcher Himla Soodyall at the University of the

Witwatersrand in South Africa told LiveScience.

Rise of modern humans

The researchers also identified genetic variations that emerged before

this split between the Khoe-San and other groups, adaptations linked

to the rise of modern humans as a whole. These appear linked with

skeletal development, such as bone and cartilage growth, as well as

immune system and brain cell function.

"There's one gene where if you have mutations in that gene, you get

heavy eyebrow ridges and rib cages that look like something that could

potentially be Neanderthal or archaic human," Jakobsson told

LiveScience. This finding suggests that further analysis of these

African groups "will help us understand the emergence of anatomically

modern humans."

Instead of pinpointing a single location from which modern humans

arose, the genetic analysis revealed "different parts of Africa show

up as potentially being the origin of anatomically modern humans,"

Jakobsson said. That suggests many different groups contributed to the

gene pool "that then later on became anatomically modern humans," he


The research also yielded insights on how pastoralism first spread to

southern Africa. Among the Nama, a pastoralist Khoe group, the

scientists found a small but very distinct genetic component that is

shared with east Africans — for instance, the cattle-herding Maasai.

"We postulate that this east African component was introduced by east

African groups that brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa,"

Schlebusch said.

In addition, the northern San populations differed from the southern

San in terms of their immune systems. "We know the southern San

populations had more contact with Bantu-speaking individuals and also

incoming colonists that colonized South Africa in the 1600s, so it

might be that the southern San populations were exposed to more novel

diseases than northern San populations which were more isolated,"

Schlebusch said.

Thursday, September 20, 2012

cognates & divergences

co-mo-ni (N) co-motion, (Sp) como/comida, (E) communal, (M) bersama/macam/how done)
do-me-s-ti-cate (enclosed huts/coop)
na-ma-s-te/car-_ (Hindu greeting)
no-ma-_-di-c (transhumant herders)
thal-mu-_-di-c (Hebrew myths)
shlo-me-le-chaim (Hebrew greeting)
sa-wa-_-di-ca/crup (Thai greeting F/M)
hu-wa-_-ka-n-ta-nka (Q+Lak)
sa-wa-s-ti-ca (f/ari(a)n/gi symbol)
_ - va-ti-ca-n (rome)
le-vi-ti-cu-s (meticulous law/lev/leg/reg)
aur-ve-di-c (ayurvedic ancient medica)
da-o-ui-di (wood/whittle/uitli?) dawei/dao/tao/tsavo

huaca (Qech) spiritual temple/shrine
wakkan tanka (Lak) great spirit/mystery ways/life
tanakh (Heb) torah + tales
vatican/leviticus/vedic/ueli  societal authority-tort/law-norms

my comment at Carlos's blog:

hand as antler/dental/talon/tine->(t)entwine(d), tent(l)acle/(s)nag/k(l)e, tentlep|hant (trunk)?
tangle/knuckle/angle/naik(M climb)/knot/mongolu

Neander-tal used raptor/corvid bones/feathers
Last night, I dreamed that the great wall of China was a late stone reconstruction of earlier Altai neanderthal mammoth riders ("mobile watchtowers cf India elephants") that used wool-felt colored banners to signal group movements for mass/maz hunts across the steppes.

banner/blanket/felt=folded pelt(dyed/tint/paint skin outwards, fur inwards -> rider sat on meshed/mashed/crushed/wetted fur/wool to make felt/fuld
quilt = quill/spind(r)ill/na(i/eed)l + hand tac/touch/tex/tile
filter= wool/weft/wove(n)lt/felt (not skin/hide) used to warm packed snow & filter water under rider which collected along bottom seams into skin bags w(ha)indbag[gua/gourd/gin/gyne/vahine/wanita/womb/umb]=windsock/sac=wineskins/canteen/kantong/pouch/pocket/bucket/bouquet(herb tea/potpouri?)/kettle?
cowl/hood-shovel=snuo-felt-snowmelt: mammoth kneeled down, blanket open, snow was shoveled/packed on top, rider closed blanket, mammoth rose, rider climbed on, settled/squished/soft/loft/elevate/elephant
"flying carpet" origin. flight+sit+fluid+folded+hind
some more comments:
souk/souq (Arab) merchant huts/booths
sukha/sukhot (Hebrew) harvest shack (English)

(originally round huts, became rectilinear due to population concentration in favorable markets)
  • ...yeah, DD, sockets before electricity or sprockets
    and rockets and socks and wind socks.
  • soc-ket, bast-ket (bast = inner string bark of lime/basswood/tilia tree)

    sockets - sox/gaiters (pelt or felt) worn beneath woven fiber sandals/snowshoes long before moccasins invented in NAm per 1 Amerind story.
    Incurved (confined) fossil toes in EurAsia indicate 45ka footware.
  • sockets for (Neand) axe-head and (Afric) arrow-head?

    ostrog(Yakutsk/Russile)=fort,=ost/ozt(r)oc/g=oztoc/oztotl(N)=cave,= Oztoc(N)=name of a spring near Hill of the Star/Citlaltepetl(N/Mex).

    "Archaeologists have discovered stone axes & sharp flint arrow-heads of both Homo spp in lime-stone caves of N-Israel. The latest findings have led researchers working on the site of Nahal
    Me'arot (Stream Cave) to believe that the 2 sub-spp may have co-existed peacefully in the coastal mountain range"

    sock't/sack/suck'tion vs blow/bellow
  • Regarding moon/calender/counting:
    I dimly recall this numerical series as possibly PIE: = t(h)rive five seve eleve tweleve
    later "new" 9 & 10 were inserted to make
    ...seve eight nine ten eleve twelve (7-12)
    in a similar manner to the Julian cal. to Greg. cal. inserted months resulting in misnamed months

    tom thumb ~ elf (alif(Arab A=alpha)?) was the early letter A representing not ox but elephant, then later changed to ox? (tusks to horns, just as early steppe tipis were first mammoth bull furskins, then later bison bull defurred skins)

    baby eel = elver

    elevate/lift up vs excavate/cave excrete
    convex/vetti-e vs concave

  • Saturday, September 15, 2012

    Is Ra El - Isa La Mu - Is Ma El - Is La Am

    Question on name:

    "Yahweh is simply a grammatical variation of ehyeh; ehyeh is first person singular, whereas Yahweh is third person singular. Because Yahweh is grammatically noted as third person singular for Yahweh, it means, “He is,” whereas ‘ehyeh,’ being in the first person means, “I am.”

    [Spanish pronunciation of Allah is Ayah which in Malay is Father = Abba (Aramaic: Father)  DD]

    Therefore, when humans discuss God’s name, the usage is Yahweh, meaning, “He is,” whereas when Yahweh Himself speaks, only HE can rightfully claim ownership in the first person singular construction, saying, “I AM.”

    The Septuagint was commonly available and used by Jews during the lifetime of Jesus because the entire Roman Empire used Koine Greek as its primary national language, just as English is fast becoming the global standard today. This major Greek version is called the Septuagint (meaning, ‘seventy’) because of the legend that the Torah was translated in the 3rd century BC by 72 scholars. The legend is probably accurate in several respects: The first Greek translation included only the Torah, and it was done in Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. Eventually the remaining Hebrew Scriptures were translated, but obviously, they were translated by other scholars whose skills and viewpoints differed.

    As a result, the Jews of that period sought after a Hebrew Bible for benefit of everyone in synagogue could understand, due mainly to the decline of spoken Hebrew, then spoken by very few, mostly scribes, rabbis, and pockets of communities of Jews scattered in many places. Consequently, the Septuagint is the Hebrew Old Testament translated in Greek and it played a key role in the changes made to the Hebrew name for God (i.e. – using the Tetragrammaton, YHWH to replace ‘Yahweh’ & omitting Yahweh altogether).

    As a spoken language, ancient Hebrew is much different than in its written form. God revealed himself by His personal Name to Moses as, “I AM THAT I AM,” (ehyeh asher ehyeh); "

    Jah from where? Jah=Yah=IeshRaEl  Hallelu'jah; (h)Al le lu ya; Al-ilah Leyv, Luv Jah [God/Bog/Got/Judah/Yehuda/Buddha/Kuda/Allah/Yahweh/Jehova/Yeshiva/Shiva]
    Ra + Jah = Raja/Rasta/RaShDa/Royal/Regnal/Regulate/Ras/Rosh

    In the original text of the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrew letters for "Jah" occurs 50 times, 26 times alone and 24 times in the term "Hallelujah" or the even earlier Hebrew translation of "Hallelu'yah", since the letter "J" was first brought into language around 500 years ago

    Hebrew: Jasher/Yasher = Upright/Just
    Arabic: Shah, Sheikh
    Spanish: Hacer
    English: Church?

    P/Bahana(Zuni/Hopi) perhaps linked to Bwana (Sir in Swahili, from Arabic abūna our father, master)
    - The term originates from the Hebrew word shibbólet (שִׁבֹּלֶת), which literally means the part of a plant containing grains, such as an ear of corn or a stalk of grain[3] or, in different contexts, "stream, torrent".[4][5] The modern usage derives from an account in the Hebrew Bible, in which pronunciation of this word was used to distinguish Ephraimites, whose dialect lacked a /ʃ/ phoneme (as in shoe), from Gileadites whose dialect did include such a {sh}phoneme.

    lith litho litr let letra/petra/tetra lythe lyze lathe latch lact leche leck
    pile pillar cellar well kadoor equator equine equi kwekwel/wheel

    Jacob poured oil on pillow/pillar stone, Moses got water from split stone, Hindus pour ghee on stone statue

    (Je) Ho Ba Shi Ra

    Jah Oba Lisk  (Oba = king, god, bwana(Sir)=(Arab)abuna, cf Obama, Obelisk) {African}
    Jahweh/Ya-Ha-W(eh)-Ha (note: early O/UB replaced by WV in Medit.) YHWH {Hellene/Roman}
    Jehova lechem {Jewish to European}
    Yeshiva lechaim {Hebrew/hapiru/abiru/abrahm/Chaldean oraha/m}
    Shiva lingam {Hindu/sindh/sinhalanka/brahman/rahman}
    Diva/devas/diviner (see bashira below (Arab seer, ba sheer ah; messiah?)
    Kiva (Pueblo under/g/round chamber/temple w/ dome roof teya cf tepa/cupola & shipapu hole)
    Estuva (Zuni kiva) from Spanish estufa-stove/heater/tletl, shipapu hole, central column
    Qufa/(Tigris round corracle, cf kophar, gopher, gufa, tepa, Quba(Ar round leather tent)
    Kirk (Scottish church)
    Gereja (Malay church)
    Church (English)

    Huaca (Qechua): spirit, wind?
    Wakkan Tanka (Lakota): great spirit (breath container?)
    Ceylon ka/Sri Lanka (Singhala):
    SaMariTan ka? Samaria, Mari
    Tanakh Heb. bible story 'container'
    kantong: pocket, socket (embayment/cave?)
    tong sampah: garbage can

    hazzan(Hebrew/Tepewa/N)=Cantor/Ecat/l olin(N)=holy wind, e.g., gaita(B/sp)=Eca-itoa(N)=Heck talks(E)=duddlesack/bagpipe,=h/th/t/lazzan= tlaza(N) (from tletl)

    sky: Malay langit, Samoan lani, white sailors = papalani ~ pahana(Hopi: older white brother)
    wind: angin

    nauatl terms - breath

    our breathtehcauh
    he is out of breath; he pants; it pantsihcica
    his breath, his spirit; its essenceihiyo
    breath; spiritihiyotl
    his breath; his spiritihiyotzin
    your breath; your spiritmihiyo
    comoni: ? common, como(Sp) how, comment(Fr) how, macam mana  (Malay), how;
    how-many; macam ini (like this), omni directional loco-motion (place-move) locus(location) focus(Ital fire, Latin hearth) ~ hocus pocus, co-motion/cosmos, modus


    Koshinto: "shin-no-mihashira (sacred central pole)." mitsu (3) bashira 3 pillar torii torii = birds nest on stilts, pillar gateway

    daikoku-bashira is the central pillar of a wooden Japanese-style dwelling. The daikoku-bashira supports the entire structure. Daikoku, a Japanese Buddhist deva god/idol derived from the Hindu war god Mahakala earlier from Shiva

    Yeshiva-Bashira(Jap.central column of Shiva temple)-Bashira(Ar. seer[messenger] of good news)-Misr(Ar. Egypt)-Messiah

     Within the mythology of the Ancient Near East, the Ugaritic de(u/v)ities are said to dwell in encampments .. these "encampments" are referred to as territories or strongholds. Hence, the deities were said to possess their own dwelling and their own territory which they called [msr).  (masra, mastura, masada = tabernacle, t-apa=camp + ngolu structure-r/boundary)

    cf permit/ssion permit [entry 1] msr~mtr
    Origin: late Middle English (originally in the sense "commit, hand over"): from Latin permittere, from per- "through, around" + mittere/mittō ("send" allow/authorize, mission).

    taber/tepe/tipi/teya - te/ti is same as interior/endura/indweller, pe/pi/ya = people/pueblo/public/hub

    Food goddess: Oho-ge-tsu-hime. Remember that aha signifies not only "foam" but "millet"

    22:3 Aha-ji signifies "foam-way," i.e., "the way to Foam (Aha)-Island
    Foam/flue/fire/fuel/plume=bloom/blow=pomum(Turk)/grindmill spindrill, aha-apa/hub/husk
    saho-ki, "pole-trees,"... "The most important mode of divination practised by the primitive Japanese was that of scorching the shoulder-blade of a deer over a clear fire, and finding, omens in the cracks produced by the heat."
    Hi appears to signify "fire" or "sun." Kumaso is properly a compound, Kuma-so, as the district is often mentioned by the simple name of So. Kuma signifies "bear," Turkish candle 

    bast(inner bark of basswood-lime tree used in basketry) bok/birch/bark/cork, vasru-vessel
    sock(sack, pock) + et = socket, pocket, kwok/(Ir)quaich/(ON)kvench=quench, hassock
    kettle(metal pot), vesl
    candle(wax-fats-gras), canasta(sp basket)
    (Atha)baskan, pastel(wax crayons)

    Waketa - Basque friend
    Wakau - Menominee AmerInd friend

    In the Ramayana, it was also known as Lankadweepa, with dweepa meaning "island". From the Ramayana comes the Javanese name Alengko for Ravana's kingdom. Another traditional Sinhala name for Sri Lanka was Lakdiva, with diva also meaning "island".(maldives)  An alternative etymology for the Greek Taprobanê is from the Sanskrit Tambrapani ("great pond" or "pond covered with red lotus"), most likely in association with the great tanks for which Sri Lanka is famed

    The priests of ancient Egypt who maintained shrines along the Nile regarded ritual purity as essential to their ministry. Many of these priests were devotees of Horus and are called "Horites" in the Bible. The Horites were a caste of ruler-priests who maintained high standards of moral behavior.

    Abba Rabbi(H)Imam AbRaHm Ibrahim Brahmin Brahma Rahman
    For Abraham's Horite ancestors, the Sun and the scarab spoke to them of their deity, HR (Horus in Greek). He was regarded with his father Ra as the marker of boundaries. Horo (oros in Greek) refers to boundaries. From horo come the English words hour, horizon and horoscope. Today "horoscope" connotes astrology, but the word originally meant observer of the hours, from hora (time or hour) and skopos (observer or watcher). The Horite priests observed the heavens day and night.

    In the time of Abraham's Nilotic ancestors, the priests of Horus (called "Horites" in the Bible) were dedicated to observation of the planets and constellations. They believed that the pattern of the heavens was mirrored on earth. They observed that the planets and the constellations have an orderly clock-like movement and they perceived as that being the same order on earth. They conceived of this order as fixed and established by the generative force that makes existence possible (logos, ruach, wisdom). The Horite priests were the known earliest astronomers and it is likely that horo is a reference to their celestial archetypes surrounding Horus, the son of Ra, born to Hathor-Meri. Hathor-Meri's animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura (Mbuti endura-spatial inside) Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable.

    The Horites were devotees of HR (Hor, Hur, Har or Horus) whose mother Hathor-Meri conceived miraculously by the overshadowing of the Sun (the Creator's emblem).
    Ruach eloyim means spirit, breath, wind, movement of God. The association of wind with Horus is seen also in the word harmattan, referring to the dry wind that seasonally blows across the Sahara.

    Ancient towers and temples reflect the cosmology of their builders. The differing geometric shapes of the temples of the Horite Sabians (Afro-Arabian Dedanites) associated the hexagon with Saturn, the triangle with Jupiter, the rectangle with Mars, the square with the Sun, the octagon with the Moon, and a triangle within a quadrangle with Venus.

    Fixed Boundaries in Genetics

    The word horotely is used to describe the boundaries of evolutionary change for a given group of plants or animals.  (Biblical anthropology)

    Statue is fake, from 20th century:

    silky nettles from Austria used in Danish burial cloth
    Syria souk, Hebrew sukha/sukhot, English dovecote, Saami goati/kota
    Was Silk road originally Souk road? Probably.

    BaMbuti mongolu-endura (dome enclosure-space)
    Nauatl ocelotl cat god/cave lion (Hebrew Ari-El vs i(s)RaEl)
    Hebrew (oc)Elo(hi)m
    English cell, cf cellulose, kell, shell, bell.

    Tuesday, August 28, 2012

    Hurricane Isaac drenched Miami

    There was a tropical storm Isaac in 2006 that followed the gulf stream, but this Isaac went west of Miami into the Gulf and towards New Orleans, on the anniversary of Katrina.

    Miami was hit by Hurricane Andrew directly several years ago.

    Physical fitness & home electrical/hydraulic power production (good for short-term emergencies eg. blizzards when the grid is down.

    --- The Limits of Pedal Power
    Of course, pedal power can only make a difference if we drastically reduce energy consumption. While athletes can produce a power output of over 2,000 watts on a bicycle, they can only sustain this over a period of a few seconds. The power that can be delivered by the average person over a sustained period of time is much less impressive than that: 75 watts or 1 "hup". This unit of measurement (short for human power) was proposed in 1984, and tells us that an average person can sustain one hup for all day, 2 hups (150 watts) for roughly two hours, 3 hups (225 watts) for about 30 minutes and 4 hups (300 watts) only momentarily.

    Are modern people "energy slaves" (aka petroleum "addicts")? Do we want to remain so?

    Monday, August 20, 2012


    from goddess of chess, tletlt, math etc.

    "the number of the goddess is 5/coatl=snaca/snake/nacatl(N)=flesh. they've found
    the 5th arch at chauvet pont d'arc painted cave where she was worshipped as regent of the tonalamatl/tonatiuh(N)=sun, tonalli(N)=soul(tone/tune). her animal is the ocelotl/
    ocelome/(oc)elo(hi)m=elohim, a hebrew god(in plural), also, cell(E/biology). " by Carlos

    endura BaMbuti pygmy congo: mongolu hut structure enc(u)loses space called endu/ra just as forest includes openings!


    I noticed the overlap of BaMbuti mongolu-endura (dome enclosure-space) and Nauatl ocelotl-Hebrew (oc)elo(hi)m cat-god, and related cell, cf cellulose, kell, shell.


    Thursday, August 9, 2012

    Timber! From wicker domes to wittle pole tipis to wood box homes

    "Intensive woodworking and tree-felling was a phenomenon that only appeared with the onset of the major changes in human life, including the transition to agriculture and permanent villages," says Dr. Barkai, whose research was published in the journal PLoS One. Prior to the Neolithic period, there is no evidence of tools that were powerful enough to cut and carve wood, let alone fell trees. But new archaeological evidence suggests that as the Neolithic age progressed, sophisticated carpentry developed alongside agriculture.

    Evolution of axes

    The use of functional tools in relation to woodworking over the course of the Neolithic period has not been studied in detail until now. Through their work at the archaeological site of Motza, a neighbourhood in the Judean Hills, Dr. Barkai and his fellow researchers, Prof. Rick Yerkes of Ohio State University and Dr. Hamudi Khalaily of the Israel Antiquity Authority, have unearthed evidence that increasing sophistication in terms of carpentry tools corresponds with increased agriculture and permanent settlements.
    The early part of the Neolithic age is divided into two distinct eras — Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). Agriculture and domesticated plants and animals appear only in PPNB, so the transition between these two periods is a watershed moment in human history. And these changes can be tracked in the woodworking tools which belong to each period, says Dr. Barkai.
    Within PPNA, humans remained gatherers but lived in more permanent settlements for the first time, he says. Axes associated with this period are small and delicate, used for light carpentry but not suited for felling trees or other massive woodworking tasks. In PPNB, the tools have evolved to much larger and heavier axes, formed by a technique called polishing. The researchers' in-depth analysis of these tools shows that they were used to cut down trees and complete various building projects.
    "We can document step by step the transition from the absence of woodworking tools, to delicate woodworking tools, to heavier woodworking tools," Dr. Barkai says, and this follows the "actual transition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture." He also identifies a trial-and-error phase during which humans tried to create an axe strong enough to undertake larger woodworking tasks. Eventually, they succeeded in creating a massive ground stone axe in PPNB
    Home makeover

    Whether the transition to an agricultural society led to the development of major carpentry tools or vice versa remains to be determined, says Dr. Barkai, who characterizes it as a "circular argument." Whatever the answer, the parallel changes led to a revolution in lifestyle.
    Beyond the change from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural economy, a new form of architecture also emerged. Not only did people begin to live in permanent villages, but the buildings in which they lived literally took a different shape. The round and oval structures of earlier domiciles were replaced by rectangular structures in PPNB, explains Dr. Barkai. "Evidence tells that us that for each home, approximately 10 wooden beams were needed. Prior to this, there were no homes with wooden beams." In addition, humans began to produce limestone-based plaster floors for their homes — which also represented a growing use of wood, since plaster is manufactured by heating limestone.
    These architectural developments, along with building pens and fences for domesticated animals, also necessitated the felling of trees in large quantities.

    Thursday, August 2, 2012

    20,000 year old pot = Wok

    20,000 year old pottery found in China.



    Also see:




    From the above blog, here's some info on the Science article from which
    the EU Times story was taken:


    Science 29 June 2012:

    Vol. 336 no. 6089 pp. 1696-1700

    DOI: 10.1126/science.1218643

    Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China

    Xiaohong Wu et al.


    The invention of pottery introduced fundamental shifts in human
    subsistence practices and sociosymbolic behaviors. Here, we describe the
    dating of the early pottery from Xianrendong Cave, Jiangxi Province,
    China, and the micromorphology of the stratigraphic contexts of the
    pottery sherds and radiocarbon samples. The radiocarbon ages of the
    archaeological contexts of the earliest sherds are 20,000 to 19,000
    calendar years before the present, 2000 to 3000 years older than other
    pottery found in East Asia and elsewhere. The occupations in the cave
    demonstrate that pottery was produced by mobile foragers who hunted and
    gathered during the Late Glacial Maximum. These vessels may have served
    as cooking devices. The early date shows that pottery was first made and
    used 10 millennia or more before the emergence of agriculture.

    Here's a link to a short NY Times article on the find:




     Oldest Wok. See the pix. Shallow thin-wall pre-metal clay bowl, both for fast frying (oily fish?) and slow-simmering soups (soybeans/millet/wild rice?).

    "The ceramics probably consisted of simple concave vessels that were likely used for cooking food" NYT

    Consider this:
    a) oldest pottery found, So. China 20ka, (bowl form), Glacial maximum period
    b) 20ka China coasts are today submerged post-ice age
    c) Wok is ancient Chinese cooking bowl, fry, boil & steam chopped foods
    d) requires sharp flake/blade; wood/horn spoon/ladle; bamboo/ivory chopsticks
    e) oldest writing: Chinese CHARacters on turtle shell (bowl form)
    f) Before black ink was made from scraped char, bone pen scrawled on charred bowl
    g) cher (Rus black) char (Eng burnt), carve/scarify (Eng), carbon, bakar (Malay burn)

    In Mandarin wok is guo (city walls ~ (mon)golu/bungalo/anglo = enclose), dialects: kwok, wok
    "The Guo family is one of the well known Hui clans around Quanzhou in Fujian, they are examples of these Hui who identify as Muslim by nationality but do not practice Islam.
    Compare Khan/Cohen/Cohn/Guo/Kwok/ names of turtles in many languages
    Malay, Indonesian: kurakura
    Mali Bambara: koorakaara
    Afrikaans, Dutch, Danish: skilpad
    So. Af. Xhosa: i-sikolopati, ufudo
    So. Af. Tswana: khudu
    Sicilian: tartuca
    Japanese: kame
    Chinese: uguei (cf guo/wok)
    Bulgarian: kostenurka
    Hebrew: zav, tsav
    Iraqi dial: ragga, kashf

    Bow, bagel, bend: [C15: probably from Low German boog ; related to Dutch boeg , Danish bov ship's bow, shoulder; see bough ]


    Thursday, July 26, 2012


    AmerIndian plains tipis originated from a bull bison pelt with tail retained on back side of tent with attached female pelts sewn to it and smoke flaps in front representing horns, this derived from ancient mammoth-hide tents framed by debarked willow/wicker poles or defleshed long bones, with a bull mammoth pelt overlaid on top of leaf/rush shingles or rolled woven rush mats, with smoke flaps being skull-socketed tusks draped (perhaps pinned, not sewn) with pelts acting as both smoke hole cover and entryway.


    'reconstructions' of mammoth tents

    tipi types (imagine if constructed of mammoth pelts, bones, tusks)

    Friday, July 20, 2012

    Neanderthal & Sapiens: scraping & spinning

    [Some news articles relating to paleo-particle-linguistics speculations of  Carlos @ especially in regard to fire starting, bone flutes, etc.]
    Authors suggest habitual animal skin hide scraping as cause for pronounced right forelimb dominance of neanderthals. I would add plant processing (bark/root scraping) for food/medicine/pitch and fire starting by dynamic-right-hand scraping while left-hand held static item securely). A group from Africa (without fire-starting technology, cf Mbuti Congo pygmies) entered Levant/Spain and learned and modified neanderthal fire starting by using both hands to spin the firestick while holding it vertical in a mouthpiece (flue/flame/flute/Lakota peace pipe).

    Update: See article & photos of 44ka Border Cave & San Kalahari bushmen drilling ostrich egg & marine shells to make pendants/beads, this resembles palm-palm spinning (spindle/kindling) of fire drill (possibly also done by neanderthals), while the threading uses the thumb-finger precision grip (which Carlos reports that Neanderthals lacked, thus no thread nor bow/arrow, just atlatl sling). Congo Mbuti pygmies do use poison arrows but don't make these beads or use fire drill/spindles. Most likely San copied linear fire starting/scraping from Neandertals and modified it into fire drilling/spinning which was then broadcast to all Hs except Rainforest pygmoidal people. Note that in Borneo, rainforest natives developed the fire piston, an air pump compression fire starter.

    Neanderthal women wore a draping fur pelt (robe/wrap/toga/shawl) over the left shoulder with the corner tucked underarm while carrying an infant in left arm near breast wrapped warmly in fur, with some moss underneath. Neanderthal men draped the (reindeer/bear/buffalo) fur similarly but carried a water bag or tool in left hand while the right hand held a spear-walking stick. Both wore a belt/drawstring/rope to hold the pelt tight or loose (leaving a 'pocket' space above the belt).

    Sapien men and women leaving hot tropical Africa for Spain and the Levant copied this, but modified it by including a woven linen/hemp undergarment (enlarged loincloth/stringskirt) and inserting bone pin/clasp/broach "sewn" through pelt sides allowing both hands to be free when desired, for eg. bimanual spinning of firestick or thread.

     {my interpretation: DDeden}

    Some articles:


    Neandertal Humeri May Reflect Adaptation to Scraping Tasks, but Not  Spear Thrusting
    Colin N Shaw, Cory L Hofmann, Michael D Petraglia, Jay T  Stock, Jinger S Gottschall
    PLoS ONE 7(7): e40349 doi  10.1371/journal.pone.0040349
    Unique compared with recent &  prehistoric Hs, Hn humeri are characterised by
    - a pronounced  right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry &
    - an A-P strengthened  diaphyseal shape.

    A) Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed  during regular
    underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential  explanatory hypothesis.
    The core tenet of the "Spear Thrusting Hypothesis"  (underhand thrusting
    requires greater muscle activity on the right side of  the body compared to
    the left) remains untested.
    B) Might alternative  subsistence behaviours (eg, hide processing) better
    explain this  morphology?
    EMG was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers  of the
    humerus (pectoralis major PM, anterior AD & posterior deltoid PD)  during
    A) 3 distinct spear-thrusting tasks &
    B) 4 separate scraping  tasks.

    A) Maximum muscle activity MAX & total muscle activity TOT  were
    significantly higher at the left (non-dominant) AD, PD & PM compared  to
    the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the  muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend  itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength
    asymmetry found  in Hn humeri.
    B) During the performance of all 3 uni-manual scraping  tasks, right side
    MAX & TOT were significantly greater at the AD & PM  compared to the left.
    The consistency of the results provides evidence that  scraping activities
    (eg, hide preparation) may be a key behaviour in  determining the unusual
    pattern of Hn arm morphology.
    These results  yield important insight into the Hn behavioural repertoire
    that aided  survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.

    Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal  plants
    entrapped in dental calculus
    Karen Hardy, Stephen Buckley, Matthew  J Collins, Almudena Estalrrich, Don
    Brothwell, Les Copeland, Antonio  Garc¨ªa-Tabernero, Samuel Garc¨ªa-Vargas,
    Marco de la Rasilla, Carles  Lalueza-Fox cs 2012 doi
    Neanderthals  disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago.
    Until recently,  Neanderthals were understood to have been  predominantly
    meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests  their diet also included
    plants. We present the results of a study, in  which sequential thermal
    desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  (TD-GC-MS) and
    pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were  combined
    with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify  material
    entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from  the
    north Spanish site of El Sidr¨®n.
    Our results provide the first  molecular evidence for inhalation of
    wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale  and ingestion of a range of
    cooked plant foods. We also offer the first  evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a
    Neanderthal individual. The  varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the
    Neanderthal  occupants of El Sidr¨®n had a sophisticated knowledge of their
    natural  surroundings which included the ability to select and use  certain plants.
    Neanderthals ate their  greens
    Tooth analysis shows that european hominins roasted vegetables and  may
    have used medicinal plants.
    Matt Kaplan 18.7.12
    Hn have long been  viewed as meat-eaters.
    The vision of them as inflexible carnivores has even  been used to suggest
    that they went extinct c 25 ka as a result of food  scarcity, whereas
    omnivorous humans were able to survive.
    But evidence is  mounting that plants were important to Hn diets ¡ª and now
    a study reveals  that those plants were roasted, and may have been used
    medicinally. The  finding comes from the El Sidr¨®n Cave in N-Spain, where the c 50-ka
    skeletal  remains of at least 13 Hn have been discovered.
    Many of these individuals had  calcified layers of plaque on their teeth.
    Karen Hardy wondered whether it  might be possible to use this plaque to
    take a closer look at the Hn  menu.
    Using plaque to work out the diets of ancient animals is not entirely  new,
    but Hardy has gone further by looking for organic compounds in the  plaque.
    They used gas chromatography & mass spectrometry to analyse the  plaque
    collected from 10 teeth belonging to 5 Hn individuals from the  cave.
    The plaque contained a range of carbohydrates & starch granules:  the Hn
    had consumed a variety of plant spp, but there were few lipids or  proteins
    from meat.
    Hardy cs also found, lurking in the plaque of a few  specimens, a range of
    alkyl-phenols, aromatic hydro-carbons & roasted  starch granules: they had
    spent time in smoky areas and eaten cooked  vegetables.
    Richard  Wrangham:
    "The idea that Hn were largely meat-eaters has been hard for me to  accept
    given their membership in a mainly vegetarian clade.
    It is exciting  to see this new set of techniques applied to understanding
    their  palaeo-diet."
    Among the compounds that Hardy found were chemicals from plants  such as
    yarrow & camomile, which taste bitter and have no nutritional  value.
    Genetic analysis has shown that Hn had the ability to detect  bitter
    tastes, raising questions about why they would intentionally eat  such
    Michael Chazan suggests that the bitter-tasting plants were  used in
    fire-making, and could have entered the diet as a by-product of  cooking.
    Wrangham, by contrast, proposes that yarrow & camomile were used  as
    Hardy disagrees with Wrangham:
    "The idea of Hn sitting  down for a bowl of salad stretches my imagination,
    and there is no evidence  of them having cooking pots, so soups seem
    Hardy theorizes that  the Hn may have used the bitter plants as medicines ¡ª
    modern herbalists use  them as anti-inflamatories & antiseptics:
    "All modern higher primates  make use of medicinal plants, so perhaps
    Neanderthals did too.
    Lawrence  Straus:
    "As exceptional places like El Sidr¨®n reveal just how wise &  flexible Hn
    were, more & more we are having to ask ourselves, why did  they go

    Neanderthals in Northern  Spain Had Knowledge of Plants' Healing Qualities,
    Study  Reveals
    An international team has provided the first molecular  evidence that Hn
    not only ate a range of cooked plant foods, but also  understood its
    nutritional & medicinal qualities.
    Until  recently Hn (disappeared 30-24 ka) were thought to be  predominantly
    However, evidence of dietary breadth is growing  as more sophisticated
    analyses are undertaken.
    Researchers combined  pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry with
    morphological analysis of  plant micro-fossils to identify material trapped
    in dental calculus  (calcified plaque) from 5 Hn from El Sidr¨®n.
    Their results provide another  twist to the story: the first molecular
    evidence for medicinal plants being  used by a Hn individual.
    The researchers say the starch granules &  carbohydrate markers in the
    samples, plus evidence for plant compounds such  as azulenes & coumarins,
    as well as possible evidence for nuts, grasses & even green vegetables,
    argue for a broader use of ingested plants than  is often suggested by
    stable isotope analysis.
    Karen Hardy  (Naturwissenschaften):
    "The varied use of plants we identified suggests that  the Hn occupants of
    El Sidr¨®n had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural  surroundings,
    which included the ability to select & use certain plants  for their
    nutritional value & for self-medication.
    While meat was  clearly important, our research points to an even more
    complex diet than has  previously been supposed."
    Earlier research by this team had shown that the  Hn in El Sidr¨®n had the
    bitter taste perception gene.
    Now trapped within  dental calculus, researchers found molecular evidence
    that one individual had  eaten bitter tasting plants.
    Stephen Buckley:
    "The evidence indicating  this individual was eating bitter-tasting plants
    such as yarrow &  camomile with little nutritional value is surprising.
    We know that Hn would  find these plants bitter, so it is likely these
    plants must have been  selected for reasons other than taste."
    10 samples of dental calculus  from 5 Hn were selected.
    The researchers used thermal desorption &  pyrolysis
    gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify both free/unbound &
    bound/polymeric organic components in the dental calculus.
    By using  this method + the extraction & analysis of plant micro-fossils,
    they  found chemical evidence consistent with
    - wood-fire smoke,
    - a range of  cooked starchy foods,
    - 2 plants known today for their medicinal qualities &
    - bitumen or oil shale trapped in the dental calculus.
    Matthew  Collins:
    "Using mass spectrometry, we were able to identify the building  blocks of
    carbohydrates in the calculus of 2 adults, one individual in  particular
    having apparently eaten several different carbohydrate-rich  foods.
    Combined with the microscopic analysis, it also demonstrates how  dental
    calculus can provide a rich source of information."
    The researchers  say evidence for cooked carbohydrates is confirmed by both
    the  cracked/roasted starch granules observed microscopically, and the
    molecular  evidence for cooking & exposure to wood smoke or smoked food in
    the form  of a range of chemical markers including methyl-esters, phenols &
    polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons found in dental calculus.
    Les  Copeland:
    "Our research confirms the varied & selective use of plants by  Hn."
    The study also provides evidence that the starch granules reported from  El
    Sidr¨®n represent the oldest granules ever to be confirmed using  a
    biochemical test,
    ancient bacteria found embedded in the calculus offers  the potential for
    future studies in oral health.
    The archaeological  cave site of El Sidr¨®n (Asturias) contains the best
    collection of Hn remains  found in Iberia - one of the most important
    active sites in the  world. Discovered in 1994, it contains c 2000 skeletal remains of at least  13
    individuals c 47.3 - 50.6 ka.
    Antonio Rosas:
    "El Sidr¨®n has allowed  us to banish many of the preconceptions we had of Hn.
    Thanks to previous  studies, we know that they looked after the sick,
    buried their dead, and  decorated their bodies.
    Now another dimension has been added relating to  their diet &