Thursday, March 25, 2010

Humboldt Bay, Nor Cal Pacific events

Humboldt Bay / Kuala Walu Wiki current mariculture Bay conditions
DATE: APRIL 22-24, 2010

CeNCOOS HSU Abstract on Humboldt Bay mariculture, chlorophyll & oysters

Chlorophyll Levels in the Bay F. J. Shaughnessy
1; G. B. Crawford1 1. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, United States.
A variety of ocean observation platforms exist in Humboldt Bay and the outer northern coast of California. Part of this system, now operated by CeNCOOS, includes fixed instrument packages in Humboldt Bay containing a variety of basic water quality sensors including chlorophyll fluorometers. The first such system was deployed in the bay in 2003. Oyster growers in the bay, who account for 60-70% of California’s oyster production, immediately started using the near real time chlorophyll data to make decisions about when to plant out and harvest the bivalves. The growers have since indicated they would also like to be able to predict the availability of food (i.e. phytoplankton) in the bay in order to improve their business decisions. This presentation focuses on the development of a statistical model for predicting bay chlorophyll...

Poster on Nor Cal coast huge persistent clockwise eddy, effect of temp & tide:

Central & Northern California Coastal Observing System
(Govt. funded)

April 26 - Freediving Apnea Scandi discussion group in Dahab Egypt
The current programme being proposed include the following presentations:

* Bubbles and DCS in deep diving
* Eating or fasting before maximal apnea
* Effects of dry apnea training on protective responses
* Warm up – or not before maximal apnea
* SaO2 recovery and pulmonary oedema
* Mental training and diving performance

May 26 - DHA celebration in London, including seafood heritage.

Omega 3 fish oils (DHA) are essential to human diet, they are most plentiful at the shores.

For information on the DHA conference, request a pdf here.
To register online: go here


Sea otters sleep on their backs while floating on the water surface.

Northern elephant seals sleep on their backs while sinking down into the depths.


Biol Lett. 2010 Apr 23;6(2):163-6. Epub 2009 Oct 28.
Three-dimensional resting behaviour of northern elephant seals: drifting like a falling leaf.

Mitani Y, Andrews RD, Sato K, Kato A, Naito Y, Costa DP.

National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3, Midorikawa, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan.

During their long migrations through the Pacific, northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, never haul out on land and they rarely spend more than a few minutes at a time at the surface. They are almost constantly making repetitive, deep dives, raising the question of when do they rest? One type of dive, the drift dive, characterized by a time-depth profile with a phase of lower than average descent speed is believed to be a resting dive. To examine the behaviour of seals during drift dives, we measured body position and three-dimensional diving paths of six juvenile seals. We found that seals rolled over and sank on their backs during the drift phase, wobbling periodically so that they resembled a falling leaf. This enabled seals to drastically slow their descent rate, possibly so that negatively buoyant seals can rest without ending up in the abyss. This reduces the work required to return to the surface to breath, and allows them time to rest, process food or possibly sleep during the descent phase of these dives where they are probably less susceptible to predation.

PMID: 19864274 [PubMed - in process]

Small World Indah Center

Re. Jenny

The Big 5 Ideas of Science

Biological evolution via natural selection of genetic permutation
Geological plate tectonic continental drift and seafloor spreading
Atomic model of matter - nuclear/electromagnetic mass energy
Periodic table of chemical elements - tetrahedral form of table
Big bang origin of universe - big beats

(relativity, ico-octet structure, gravity as surface area?)

Plate tectonic theory explains the processes that have shaped Earth in terms of plates (large movable segments of the lithosphere) and their movement, including continental drift, seafloor spreading, seismic and volcanic activity, and the structures of Earth's crust to provide a unifying model of Earth's evolution.

The subducting slab contains many hydrous minerals, which release their water on heating during subduction under the continental plate margin; this water then causes the mantle to melt, producing volcanism. Examples of this are the Andes mountain range in South America and the Japanese island arc.

Driving forces of plate motion

Tectonic plates are able to move because of the relative density of oceanic lithosphere and the relative weakness of the asthenosphere. Dissipation of heat from the mantle is acknowledged to be the original source of energy driving plate tectonics. The current view, although it is still a matter of some debate, is that excess density of the oceanic lithosphere sinking in subduction zones is the most powerful source of plate motion. When it forms at mid-ocean ridges, the oceanic lithosphere is initially less dense than the underlying asthenosphere, but it becomes denser with age, as it conductively cools and thickens. The greater density of old lithosphere relative to the underlying asthenosphere allows it to sink into the deep mantle at subduction zones, providing most of the driving force for plate motions. The weakness of the asthenosphere allows the tectonic plates to move easily towards a subduction zone.[22] Although subduction is believed to be the strongest force driving plate motions, it cannot be the only force since there are plates such as the North American Plate which are moving, yet are nowhere being subducted. The same is true for the enormous Eurasian Plate. The sources of plate motion are a matter of intensive research and discussion among earth scientists. wikipedia

Strange that they claim Plate Tectonic Theory explains, yet, they they can't explain how or why plates actually move.

Supercontinental ice house & green house cycles

There are two types of global earth climates: Icehouse and Greenhouse. Icehouse is characterized by frequent continental glaciations and severe desert environments. We are now in the icehouse phase, moving towards Greenhouse. Greenhouse is characterized by warm climates. Both reflect the supercontinent cycle.

* Icehouse Climate
o Continents moving together
o Sea level low due to lack of seafloor production
o Climate cooler, arid
o Associated with Aragonite seas
o Formation of Supercontinents

* Greenhouse Climate
o Continents dispersed
o Sea level high
o High level of sea floor spreading
o Relatively large amounts of CO2 production at oceanic rifting zones
o Climate warm and humid
o Associated with Calcite seas

Periods of Icehouse Climate: Much of Neoproterozoic, Late Paleozoic, Late Cenozoic.

Periods of Greenhouse Climate: Early Paleozoic, Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic.
[edit] Relation to evolution

The principal mechanism for evolution is natural selection among diverse populations. As genetic drift occurs more frequently in small populations, diversity is an observed consequence of isolation. Less isolation, and thus less diversification, occurs when the continents are all together, producing both one continent and one ocean with one coast. In Latest Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic times, when the tremendous proliferation of diverse metazoa occurred, isolation of marine environments resulted from the breakup of Pannotia.

An arrangement of N-S continents and oceans leads to much more diversity and isolation than E-W oceans and continents. This forms zones that are separated by water or land and that merge into climatically different zones along communication routes to the north and south. Formation of similar tracts of continents and ocean basins, only oriented E-W would lead to much less isolation, diversification, and slower evolution. Through the Cenozoic, isolation has been maximized by an arrangement of N-S ocean basins and continents.

Diversity, as measured by the number of families, follows the supercontinent cycle very well.

Monday, March 22, 2010

Algebra in Wonderland?

Brief moment of math:

"The word “algebra,” De Morgan said in one of his footnotes, comes from an Arabic phrase he transliterated as “al jebr e al mokabala,” meaning restoration and reduction".

Was Lewis Carrols' Alice in Wonderland a satire of the new math of the time period?

NY Times article

Donald Duck in Mathmagic land: Disney cartoon movie from 1959

video short of film
h/t Kirby U @ synergeo

646.18 Atoms dislodged from the outer layer of the omniintermagnetized ball bearings would always roll around on one another to relocate themselves in some closest- packing array, with any two mass-interattracted atoms being at least in tangency. When another dynamic-spherical-domain atom comes into closest-packing tangency with the first two, the mutual interattractiveness interrolls the three to form a triangle. Three in a triangle produce a "planar" pattern of closest packing. When a fourth ball bearing lodges in the nest formed between and atop the first three, each of the four balls then touches three others simultaneously and produces a tetrahedron having a concave-faceted void within it. In this tetrahedral position, with four-dimensional symmetry of association, they are in circumferential closest packing. Having no mutual sphere, they are only intercircumferentially mass-interattracted and cohered: i.e., gravity alone coheres them, but gravity is hereby seen experimentally to be exclusively circumferential in interbonding.
646.19 With further spherical atom additions to the initial tetrahedral aggregate, the outermost balls tend to roll coherently around into asymmetrical closest-packing collections, until they are once more symmetrically stabilized with 12 closest packing around one and as yet exercising their exclusively intercircumferential interattractiveness, bound circumferentially together by four symmetrically interacting circular bands, whereby each of the 12 surrounding spheres has four immediately adjacent circumferential shell spheres interattracting them circumferentially, while there is only one central nuclear ball inwardly__i.e., radially attracting each of them. In this configuration they form the vector equilibrium.

What Bucky didn't address there is that any spherical configuration (with any number of spheres) produces a geometrical nucleus, but the surface area (number of surface facets) determines if the nucleus is vertexial like the VE (sometimes defined as a small rhombic dodeca) or skeletal polyhedral like the star tetra, star octa, star icosa core polyhedra.

Friday, March 19, 2010

Tools & Tetrapods Table

Comparison of species tool use habits:

SpeciesTool TypeTool UseLocale Used


small stick,

neesia seed, squeak
Gorillalong stick, stone
wading/bridging smash
ground waterside


stick, stone

smash, dig, spear, carry
ground canopy

Ar. Humanstick stone shellsmash, pry, cut, dam...
ground waterside


stone, shellsmash, pry
ground waterside
Sea Otter
stonesmash, carry


dam, carry
ground waterside

H erectus 2ma Africa/Asia

H Heidelbergensis .4ma Spain

Anoiapithecus 12ma Spain: A hominoid with skull features similar to orangutans. Did Orangs live around the Mediterranian Sea forested bays, along with gibbons, and some moved along the Tethys coasts to south east Asia, while others transformed into hominids? Oreopithecus of Sardinia, Sahelanthropus of Chad, Orrorin etc. of east African Rift valley.
Spanish Orangutan 12 million years ago

Spanish Miocene apes 12ma:

Are orangutans genetically closer to humans than chimps are?
Did lungfish only recently derive lungs like tetrapods?
orangs & lungfiswh

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Dinosaur-Avian evolution

see my comments

Early bird-dino types had long straight bony tails used to prop upright while static on ground and perch upright on tree branches. Their long necks allowed them to sleep with the head swivelled back between the arms/wings, giving them ability to see behind & above while resting, advantage against predators which normally attack from the rear or above. This tucked-back posture (seen also in giraffes & geese) has resulted in many fossil birdinos found in this position, the "death pose", because they died asleep on the ground, perhaps in buried hollows or underbrush during sandstorms.

When these 'birdinos' developed bristle filament protofeathers on the caudal ventral surface, it allowed better perching while on branches, the feather tips and edges acting like velcro or fingertip ridges, the long fan of feathers giving part-circumferential anchorage, from bone to bark, while the long curved hyperextended toes were above the branch, the other toes clamped from below. Eventually a side toe moved sidewards, then reversed, giving better traction and reducing need for a long heavy tail, so they replaced the bony tail with long tail feathers and short pygostyle, while shrinking the long neck (except in waders/surface feeders) and replacing teeth with lightweight beaks, improving aerial traits. Non-aquatic arboreal birds greatly shortened the body axis, grounded birds less so.

Compare arboreal (carni-frugi?) birdinos to tupaia tree shrews:

Nocturnal pen-tailed tree shrew (Ptilocercus lowi) with bony feather-fan tail which drinks wine from bertram palm and hops when on the ground (compare to early birdinos with long bony tail with feather fans):
(Tree shrews are very small insectivore/frugivore/nectarivores, close cousins to primates, niche habits similar to early birdinos? (cf drunken monkey hypothesis and Asian Flush reaction to nectar-fruit-yeast alcohol consumption on metabolism re sugar/carb/aldehyde/diabetes.)

Diurnal mountain tree shrew with fluffy squirrel tail which after feeding on pitcher plant nectar exudates then deposits Nitrogenous poo into the loo, the bowl of the pitcher plant, and runs swiftly while on the ground:

Coelecanth - dinosaur fish that swam on 4 legs, uses trimtab tail rudder

Petro city Monstrosity: Cities have become havens for engines, not humans.

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

Dolphins & diabetes II

Diabetes II: only in humans and dolphins? Large brain needs O2 & energy balance:

Model for human health

“While some people may eat a high protein diet to help control diabetes, dolphins appear to have developed a diabetes-like state to support a high protein diet,” veterinary epidemiologist Stephanie Venn-Watson, director of clinical research at the NMMF, told a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in San Diego.

It’s the first time researchers have found a natural animal model for type II diabetes in humans.

This not only allows scientists to explore diabetes-like functions in an animal model, but studying their genome may help find a completely new treatment.

Large brain demand high blood glucose

“Shared large brains that have high blood glucose demands may explain why two completely different species - humans and dolphins - have developed similar physiological mechanisms to handle sugar,” she added.

There are also hints that humans and dolphins may share similar chronic conditions associated with diabetes, such as insulin resistance, haemochromatosis (or iron overload) and kidney stones.
dolphin diabetes

Dolphins have harmless diabetic fast during sleep which pumps up blood glucose levels. Most animals get their glucose from eating carbs, but not dolphins. Brains need suhgar to function, but fish has none. 3 dolphins with abnormal insulin levels also had iron overload, a condition associated with diabetes in people. While humans and dolphins aren't closely related, both have big brains and blood cells that can move large amounts of glucose, so both may have a switch.

Whale carcass muscles contain so much iron-rich myoglobin that they smell metallic until they rot.


Stone age Norway: sealers, whalers stone age

Red Sea Reefs had freshwater templates
Hormones-neurotransmitters: vasopressin, oxytocin, serotonin

chimps: stones & sticks in food processing in trees and on ground
gorillas: sticks in wading water, stones in food processing nuts on ground
orangs: small sticks in food processing (neesia seeds between lips) in trees
humans: sticks, stones, shells for domes, dams, food processing, in water and on ground
capuchins: shells, stones for food processing on ground and waterside trees
sea otters: stones in food processing in water
beavers: sticks in food processing, dome huts, dams, in water and on ground