Friday, April 20, 2018

Oak Leaf damage = Oak Gall Wasp egg cases?

Exactly what insect did this damage to these 2 southern oak leaves? I figure a wasp laid eggs inside the leaves, the larvae have already left. I've seen oak galls on stems in the north, but these leaves seem to have been infested by a different species.  [Click image to enlarge]

Any ideas of species?

Location: Miami Beach, FL, Bass Museum front lawn
Climate conditions: drought 4 months
Date: April 20, 2018

Saturday, November 4, 2017

!hxaro Reciprocal Exchange: From canteens to a pocketful of cash

!hxaro ostrich eggshell etched canteen exchange & drilled shell beads from Kalahari to China resulted in coin production

Eggshell (Ostrich) drilled beads / coins China 8ka - 12ka

Bowdrill used to make holes in eggshells China

Metal stamped coins China 800yo

South Africa eggshell etching & perforation 60ka
Ostrich eggshell drinking cups of Mesopotamia
Ostrich eggshell fossils with proteins 3.6ma

Neolithic tools
Reciprocity of Bushmen

In the 1950s Elizabeth Marshall Thomas became one of the first Westerners to live with the Bushmen of the Kalahari desert in Botswana and South-West Africa. Her account of these nomadic hunter-gatherers, whose way of life had remained unchanged for thousands of years, is a ground-breaking work of anthropology, remarkable not only for its scholarship but for its novelistic grasp of character. On the basis of field trips in the 1980s, Thomas has now updated her book to show what happened to the Bushmen as the tide of industrial civilization -- with its flotsam of property rights, wage labor, and alcohol -- swept over them. The result is a powerful, elegiac look at an endangered culture as well as a provocative critique of our own.

"The charm of this book is that the author can so truly convey the strangeness of the desert life in which we perceive human traits as familiar as our own....The Harmless People is a model of exposition: the style very simple and precise, perfectly suited to the neat, even fastidious activities of a people who must make their world out of next to nothing."

-- The Atlantic

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Congo Basenji dog from Bassetki, Kurdistan

The basenji dog is a primitive canid, genetically wolf-like and has gestation once per year rather than twice like most dogs; yet its tail curls up tightly unlike any wolf or other dog. New article about 93 cuniform clay tablets found at Bassetki, an ancient Assyrian trading center, mentions that one tablet referred to a goddess Gula, who was always depicted with her hound at her feet, which looks like a basenji with curled -up tail.

 Bassetki ~ Basenji.

Assyrian cuneiform clay tablets as they were discovered inside a clay vessel at the Bronze Age city site of Bassetki (Mitanni-Assyrian, Kurdistan, North Iraq) 

It is not yet known if the tablets contain business, legal, or religious records. "Our philologist Dr. Betina Faist has deciphered one small fragment of a clay tablet. It mentions a temple to the goddess Gula, suggesting that we may be looking at a religious context," he adds. 

Goddess Gula and her dog: 

Picture of Basenji dog of Congo: 

Do you agree that Gula's dog portrayed a Basenji, and that breed ended up in Congo with Bantu agriculturalists via trade, along with Asian domestic crops? 

The intense work of reading and translating the 93 cuneiform tablets will begin in Germany 

Read more at 

In recent months, the researchers excavated layers of settlement dating from the Early, Middle, and Late Bronze Age, as well as from the subsequent Assyrian period. "Our finds provide evidence that this early urban center in northern Mesopotamia was settled almost continuously from approximately 3000 to 600 BCE. That indicates that Bassetki was of key significance on important trade routes," Pfälzner says. 

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Hxaro zero hello

Following is my response to a blogpost by Andrew at his blog Dispatches from Turtle Island:
Also  some notes from Nirjar's blog by Kyriakos S. and discussion with Rybo at Synergeo forum:;_ylc=X3oDMTJyMTU2Y3ZkBF9TAzk3MzU5NzE1BGdycElkAzE2NjA1NDYEZ3Jwc3BJZAMxNzA1MDA3NzA5BG1zZ0lkAzcyNjI4BHNlYwNkbXNnBHNsawN2bXNnBHN0aW1lAzE0OTcxNDU2NjU-

Shield(round/oval) = (shallow shell)
!hxaro = cheltia(Aztec) = magal(Basque) = spara(Persian) = pacal(Maya) = machan(Malay) = magen(Hebrew) cf ma'gal(Hebrew: round camp) = targa(Celtic) = geolwe(OE)

Igloo egg-oval mbo.ngolu: mother.bowl-shield

Geolwe (PIE-Old English) shield in Beowulf via (mbo)ngualua/mongolu(Mbuti) ~ Geo/Gaia

Latin cilium 'eylid' (wikipedia points to a root 'kel 'to cover').  

Aka/aga: s.aga(Norse)~s.age(English),
= r.aga(Hindi, Japanese) = g.aga(Balinese) = ga.l(Sanskrit: spe.ak, sayings) = qa.l(Tigrinha Ethiopian: l.ingua.l) = ch.aka.p(Malay: skilled sp.eech) = = .hua(Chinese: sp.eech) = b.icha.ra(Indonesian)

!hxaro halo bottle/bota (Spanish: wineskin canteen)/bwato(Bantu: boat)/sago/taro/zero

Shekel(Hebrew: coin) socket [azocatl(Aztec)] holed & laced disk bead of ostrich eggshell (22ka? So Africa) (later jade, ceramic, metal, glazed) became holed Chinese coins (stacked on sticks as abacus), were used as ferry-fare - fee.ride-freight-pirate-pilot shuttle-xiotl(Aztec) tokens-tickets-boleta(Spanish) on qufarigolu/coracles (later rafts & dugout canoes=canals-kanak.a(sago scrapers/taro rakers/canoe makers/cane breakers/canine leaders-leashers/coin ledgers?) thus begetting the Anthropocene era of orthogonal (grid/grate) rectilinearization via 90degree woven/warpa/urba.n streets/strips/straps/tlapa(Aztec).which followed the earlier cuerva/sarpa/se.rp.entine(snake-naga(India))/ripa.rian-rive.rine = (ibr)antzler.tine = co.mb.ine (communal/molimo(Mbuti:mother-limb-all) = camp.a(l)ign/compound/kampongMalay-Cham: hamlet) ~ kantong(Malay: containment) = canata(Iroquois: hamlet) = canastros(Greek)= cannister- reed(street) basket.

Taro has arrow-shaped leaves. Sparrow in flight is aero.

Were the eggshell/!hxaro/shekel beads drilled with (ph)araohead (crown-glow-ngolu)/pyra/fire/tletl(Aztec) firedrill, as in China? Yes.  When? Before or after Papua sago adze-canoe-flour? Andaman, Mbuti & Tasmanian pygmies carried embers, not drills or Borneo fire pistons. Andaman bows were S shaped, used to paddle dugouts, carried sacred ember in clay pot, Mbuti used nets & spears, not arrows, carried ember in fireproof leaf pouch.

Pharaoh ("house") was actually Xya/Shah + mphuaruaha/ mbuangdualua =(ca)mpfire.r/emperor, with m as vowel and r replaced l, but also ferry-O(Nile) thus !hxar-o = halo/ (hail a taxi cab or haggle with a ferry captain over the d.river fare

Or so.

DD'eDeN ~ David ~ Da'ud ~ Diode ~ ∆^¥°∆

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Lucky 7

Happy Easter (Christian holiday)

7th lamp.tlapa.xyambuatlaxya.candle.antler.chandelier.candelabra.menaurah
syabash.shamash.xamax dawn.tawny.roan.Oroan-Kurukh. ur utu buni
7th day (Hebrew) sabath.shabat.Xyambuat.xmx
7th sage (Sumerian) Oannes.johannes.john.janus.cana
7th angel (Yazidi Kurd) melek Taus.Taurus.(t/h)or(o/a).aura.ahuramazda.
avram.abraham.oroham.(t)Aurochs.(Z)'oroaster.Z'roa(Hebrew: bone)
7th notch (Crimea) nife.knot.note(oct.ave flute/5-7-12-31)
!Hxaro trade network -> PHuinduigrlt.Phoenix.Venedix
7th 22nd pi (Vin'c'a) karanova zodiac sol.stice/equi.nox  Ishango bone? 4 x 7
7th season (Greece)
Lucky 7

7th week/chavuot/Xyambuatl =49 days (Omer count) after passover/pesach/leap/exit Egypt is communal festival (Chag Habikkurim) loaves offerings of first fruits-wheat at temple/(= molimo basket). Torah's precepts/mitzvot.  

-a sukha mitzva
-ot sukhot  mitzvot
-im horim
-ech barech/blessings/buat
Korech/sandwich matsoh & herb
Orech/meal(open, not covered)

Beitzah: egg/telur/huevo/oval
Z'roa: bone
Karpas: veggies, tubers
Maror/Chazeret: bitter herbs
Charoset: apple, walnut, wine mix

DD ~ David ~ Da'ud ~ Diode ~ ∆^¥°∆

Saturday, March 25, 2017

SAP-SICKEL on tree bark at Miami Beach, Rocket Stove

Liquid amber & Rocket Stove

I made one today & cooked outside.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Tectonic clock?

Earth's tectonic plates - how ancient?

Note: 12 plates subdivide Earth at equator, with one additional south pole plate. (I modified the map, adding the equatorial numbers. Click to enlarge)

Saturday, February 18, 2017


My comment at Old European Culture Blog & Biblical Anthropology:


(t)auroch/Taurus = (x)atlef/alef/elevate = head of cattle (muzzle, ears, horns) +
beth/beit = body (of mother/cow/hut) (includes tail of b, rotated 90 deg.)

Aries is the curve-horned head of ram charging=lamb emerging (=gimel/be.gyne/be.resh't) +
delta/daleth triangle of the rear (tail docked or short).

This is from the Vinca/Phoenix/PHuindiux script & zodiac eg. Karanovo zodiac (much older than the one shown at your blog), which originated at the Black Sea Oasis before 7.7ka. deluge swept various people outward to form different groups.

Alice Lindsley:

You may be confused on the symbol Y, which was waw, hook; while the sound "Y"  was symbolized by yodh, hand. Interestingly, this yodh corresponds to Eskimo tad(limad) hand and to Malay tangan(lima) hand.

more to come...

Monday, January 23, 2017

44th President USA, Barack Hussein Obama II

It's a long-standing tradition for the sitting president of the United States to leave a parting letter in the Oval Office for the American elected to take his or her place. It's a letter meant to share what we know, what we've learned, and what small wisdom may help our successor bear the great responsibility that comes with the highest office in our land, and the leadership of the free world.
But before I leave my note for our 45th president, I wanted to say one final thank... you for the honor of serving as your 44th. Because all that I've learned in my time in office, I've learned from you. You made me a better President, and you made me a better man.
Throughout these eight years, you have been the source of goodness, resilience, and hope from which I've pulled strength. I've seen neighbors and communities take care of each other during the worst economic crisis of our lifetimes. I have mourned with grieving families searching for answers – and found grace in a Charleston church.
I've taken heart from the hope of young graduates and our newest military officers. I've seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch, and wounded warriors once given up for dead walk again. I've seen Americans whose lives have been saved because they finally have access to medical care, and families whose lives have been changed because their marriages are recognized as equal to our own. I've seen the youngest of children remind us through their actions and through their generosity of our obligations to care for refugees, or work for peace, and, above all, to look out for each other.
I've seen you, the American people, in all your decency, determination, good humor, and kindness. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I've seen our future unfolding.
All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into that work – the joyous work of citizenship. Not just when there's an election, not just when our own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime.
I'll be right there with you every step of the way.
And when the arc of progress seems slow, remember: America is not the project of any one person. The single most powerful word in our democracy is the word 'We.' 'We the People.' 'We shall overcome.'
Yes, we can.
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Wednesday, November 23, 2016


Mbuti Pygmies wading in Congo rainforest feeder stream

Mbuti Pygmies with hunting nets

- - -

Papuan women with net bags (bilum, noken) making fire

Papuan women carrying baby in net bag
Sago palm flour oldest pancakes of Papua

Sago palm pith pounding with proto-adze (origin of dugout canoe)

Ancient Papuan Highland stocking cap? (cf Venus figurine)

Papuan Yali Pygmy

Melanesian blonde woman with net bag

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Classifying Language Roots

Simplified table from Merritt Ruhlen's Origin of Language

Monday, July 11, 2016

Update on Bio-Char / Terra Prieta soil improvement method
My comment: "...converts nutrient-poor rainforest soil into fertile farmland" (from link)...

Unfortunately this usually results in loss of rainforest and production of extremely poor variety of cultivated crops, many of which are inedible.

Rainforests are extremely efficient nutrient recycling systems, most nutrients are above one's head.

Rainforest soils tend to be very poor, most of the minerals are in the plants, not underground.

- - -

Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Roots of Language Families

from M Ruhlen, table of language family roots (simplified)
- - -

Match up roots to families [English at top], identify A - F are which family below:

Dravidian, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian(Bantu), KhoiSan, AmerInd, Afro-Asiatic

Saturday, January 9, 2016

3 Foresters/Arborists/Penghutanan you should know:

Patrick Matthew/Scotland: Described Theory of Natural Selection for Charles Darwin  &

Joseph Monier/France: transplanted trees by inventing metal-reinforced concrete

Karl Drais/Germany: transited through forests by inventing the bicycle

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Fire, Terra Preta = charcoal soil - Forest Mgmt.

Rainforest soils tend to be very poor, most of the minerals are in the plants, not underground.

note: xmbotl = smolder/smokey/mo-sky/mosquito
- - -
ref. (Ecology book)
The next species

I just read that Amazon rainforest natives traditionally used a unique form of slash & burn farming, cutting small openings first to semi-dry the damp understory, then burned smoldering low fires, resulting in a partially charred ground layer this greatly enriched the impoverished acidic rainforest soil, because it left a layer of organic/fertile Terra Preta = black charcoal soil

this is very different from the usual modern method of slash & burn using chainsaws to remove the high-value trees and much of the canopy then sun dry the soil and then light hot fires to burn off all the vegetation leaving an ASH layer which is mineral-rich but soon washes away leaving sunbaked crusty soil.

I had never heard of the Terra Preta method before, some rainforest farmers do this repeatedly producing soils richer than Kansas topsoil! This is excellent forage/gather/garden management of rainforests, and I wonder if it is practiced elsewhere. I was trained to view all slash & burn (swidden) agriculture negatively, (due to often excessive erosion of topsoil) so I have to revise my views on it.

- - -
Note from the lioness, at Egyptsearch:
wikipedia has a long description of Terra Preta


All Slash and Burn techniques are not the same, thanks for showing us this





Superdirt Made Lost Amazon Cities Possible?
John Roach
for National Geographic News
November 19, 2008
Centuries-old European explorers' tales of lost cities in the Amazon have long been dismissed by scholars, in part because the region is too infertile to feed a sprawling civilization.

But new discoveries support the idea of an ancient Amazonian urban network—and ingeniously engineered soil may have made it all possible.

Now scientists are trying to recreate the recipe for the apparently human-made supersoil, which still covers up to 10 percent of the Amazon Basin. Key ingredients included of dirt, charcoal, pottery, human excrement and other waste.

If recreated, the engineered soil could feed the hungry and may even help fight global warming, experts suggest.

(Interactive map: "The Embattled Amazon.")

Before 1492

Scientists have long thought the river basin's tropical soils were too acidic to grow anything but the hardiest varieties of manioc, a potatolike staple.

But over the past several decades, researchers have discovered tracts of productive terra preta—"dark earth." The human-made soil's chocolaty color contrasts sharply with the region's natural yellowish soils.

Research in the late 1980s was the first to show that charcoal made from slow burns of trees and woody waste is the key ingredient of terra preta.

With the increased level of agriculture made possible by terra preta, ancient Amazonians would have been able to live in one place for long periods of time, said geographer and anthropologist William Woods of the University of Kansas.
"As a result you get social stratification, hierarchy, intertwined settlement systems, very large scale," added Woods, who studies ancient Amazonian settlements.

"And then," he said, "1492 happens." The arrival of Europeans brought disease and warfare that obliterated the ancient Amazonian civilizations and sent the few survivors deep into the rain forest to live as hunter-gatherers.

"It completely changed their way of living," Woods said.

Magic Soil?

Today scientists are racing to tease apart the terra-preta recipe. The special soil has been touted as a way to restore more sustainable farming to the Amazon, feed the world's hungry, and combat global warming.

The terra-preta charcoal, called biochar, attracts certain fungi and microorganisms.

Those tiny life-forms allow the charcoal to absorb and retain nutrients that keep the soil fertile for hundreds of years, said Woods, whose team is among a few trying to identify the crucial microorganisms.

"The materials that go into the terra preta are just part of the story. The living member of it is much more," he said.

For one thing, the microorganisms break up the charcoal into smaller pieces, creating more surface area for nutrients to cling to, Woods said.

Anti-Global-Warming Weapon?

Soil scientist Johannes Lehmann of Cornell University is also racing to recreate terra preta.

The Amazonian dark soils, he said, are hundreds to thousands of years old, yet to this day they retain their nutrients and carbons, which are held mainly by the charcoal.

This suggests that adding biochar could help other regions of the world with acidic soils to increase agricultural yields.

Plus, Lehmann said, biochar could help reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere from the burning of wild lands to create new farm fields. (Learn how greenhouse gas emissions may worsen global warming.)

For example, specialized power plants could char agricultural wastes to generate electricity.

The process would "lock" much carbon that would have otherwise escaped into the atmosphere in the biochar. The biochar could then be put underground, in a new form of terra preta, thereby sequestering the carbon for centuries, Lehmann suggests.

Current Amazonian farming relies heavily on slash-and-burn agriculture—razing forests, then burning all of what's left.

By reverting to the ancient slash-and-char method—burning slowly and then mixing the charcoal into the soil—Amazonian carbon dioxide emissions could be cut nearly in half, according to Woods, of the University of Kansas.

With slash-and-burn, he noted, 95 percent of the carbon stored in a tree is emitted to the atmosphere. Slash-and-char emits about 50 percent, he said.

"The rest is put into different forms of black carbon, most of which are chemically inert for long periods of time—thousands of years."

In addition, the technique would allow many farmers to stay sedentary, Woods said.

Because the soil would apparently remain fertile for centuries, "they don't have to cut down the forest constantly and send it up into the atmosphere," he said.

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I learned of it only this week... although I had heard the term previously. I studied internationally at University level tropical forest ecology/soils etc., Slash & burn was almost ALWAYS considered "bad" due to rainfall washing away fertility etc. Deliberate cool charring was never discussed in forest ecology classes with regard to replanting, the focus was more on the forest canopy rather than the soil quality. That was a big omission, but typical of industrial timber/pulp production's effects on Forestry profession.

Inland Australian aboriginal term for fire: Kambo. Notice similarity to African word Jambo = greet/meet/mate/border/edge, and the Mbuti pygmy word for impenetrable thicket njama and Mbuti apa = fire, Ainu(Japan) ape = fire and Malay api = fire, and Nanai (Siberia) amba = orange/tiger and English ember/amber.

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Australian Aboriginal words

cf dog gudaga (Mbabaram) vs Yeeli & Eli (cf ari/elo=yellow dog/kelev)
cf fire Kambo
[* The vowels marked with a grave accent are long, those with an acute are short.]

Thursday, April 2, 2015

A dream, a paleo-poem

Asleep, last night, a dream occurred... 
resulting in this roughly drafted Paleo- poesis:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -

Laetoli songline
A mother walking, calmly, deliberately
a babe carried, not cradled in arm (suckling)

not in a sling (Khoisan: leather sling)
not in squared cloth wrap (Malay, Bantu)
not in net bag (Papuan) or back basket (Hmong)
not in papoose on cradle board(AmerInd)
as used on far future group treks
but She walked alone upright on two lower limbs
not low down on four with a "monkey" on her back

her babe sitting upright, bottom supported on arm,
babes' arms wrapped round her neck
as if climbing a palm tree

babes' mouth resting on mother's shoulder
babes' eyes looking behind

two eyes in front, two eyes in back 
and watched by antelope and fowl
they seemed a two-headed monster,
a bipedal version of
Dr. Doolittle's push-me pull-you 
able to see as well the tracks of the past
as the unpressed trail before her;
the mothers' gait a normal pace,
not too slow, not running, gentle rocking
in between tiptoeing and striding
relaxes her babe, no cries, awake,
aware, toothless yet fearless 
mother's melody synchronized
timed to shared breathing, hearts' beats
and unconscious swinging of footpads
babes' eyes open wide, sees something
moving behind them
mumbles "mmmaauu  mmaauu"
mother responds intuitively
"mmaauu mmaauu"? singing it
Xyambwa, the sabertooth cat,
goes still, unbreathing, confused
unable to see the normal attack zone,
the prey's rear and fly-swatting tail, 
Xyambwa can't attack the face,
a predator's code deeply embedded
a lunge from behind, claws to rip
a swipe at a tendon to prevent escape
a gripping noose round the neck 
with powerful jaws that clamp tight. 
But this one has no tail behind,
only eyes.
So Xyambwa waits and rests.
And Lucy walks onward towards
a mound of stone by a shallow pool...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
note: poesis(Greek) poetry of creation aka songline/dreamtrack/totemblem /poem
note: melody (melos(Greek): limbs)
note: mau (rimau(Malay): tiger, mao (Japanese) cat, simba(Swahili) lion, mbube(Zulu) lion