Thursday, July 14, 2016

Classifying Language Roots

Simplified table from Merritt Ruhlen's Origin of Language

Monday, July 11, 2016

Update on Bio-Char / Terra Prieta soil improvement method
My comment: "...converts nutrient-poor rainforest soil into fertile farmland" (from link)...

Unfortunately this usually results in loss of rainforest and production of extremely poor variety of cultivated crops, many of which are inedible.

Rainforests are extremely efficient nutrient recycling systems, most nutrients are above one's head.

Rainforest soils tend to be very poor, most of the minerals are in the plants, not underground.

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Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Roots of Language Families

from M Ruhlen, table of language family roots (simplified)
- - -

Match up roots to families [English at top], identify A - F are which family below:

Dravidian, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian(Bantu), KhoiSan, AmerInd, Afro-Asiatic

Saturday, January 9, 2016

3 Foresters/Arborists/Penghutanan you should know:

Patrick Matthew/Scotland: Described Theory of Natural Selection for Charles Darwin  &

Joseph Monier/France: transplanted trees by inventing metal-reinforced concrete

Karl Drais/Germany: transited through forests by inventing the bicycle

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Fire, Terra Preta = charcoal soil - Forest Mgmt.

Rainforest soils tend to be very poor, most of the minerals are in the plants, not underground.

note: xmbotl = smolder/smokey/mo-sky/mosquito
- - -
ref. (Ecology book)
The next species

I just read that Amazon rainforest natives traditionally used a unique form of slash & burn farming, cutting small openings first to semi-dry the damp understory, then burned smoldering low fires, resulting in a partially charred ground layer this greatly enriched the impoverished acidic rainforest soil, because it left a layer of organic/fertile Terra Preta = black charcoal soil

this is very different from the usual modern method of slash & burn using chainsaws to remove the high-value trees and much of the canopy then sun dry the soil and then light hot fires to burn off all the vegetation leaving an ASH layer which is mineral-rich but soon washes away leaving sunbaked crusty soil.

I had never heard of the Terra Preta method before, some rainforest farmers do this repeatedly producing soils richer than Kansas topsoil! This is excellent forage/gather/garden management of rainforests, and I wonder if it is practiced elsewhere. I was trained to view all slash & burn (swidden) agriculture negatively, (due to often excessive erosion of topsoil) so I have to revise my views on it.

- - -
Note from the lioness, at Egyptsearch:
wikipedia has a long description of Terra Preta


All Slash and Burn techniques are not the same, thanks for showing us this





Superdirt Made Lost Amazon Cities Possible?
John Roach
for National Geographic News
November 19, 2008
Centuries-old European explorers' tales of lost cities in the Amazon have long been dismissed by scholars, in part because the region is too infertile to feed a sprawling civilization.

But new discoveries support the idea of an ancient Amazonian urban network—and ingeniously engineered soil may have made it all possible.

Now scientists are trying to recreate the recipe for the apparently human-made supersoil, which still covers up to 10 percent of the Amazon Basin. Key ingredients included of dirt, charcoal, pottery, human excrement and other waste.

If recreated, the engineered soil could feed the hungry and may even help fight global warming, experts suggest.

(Interactive map: "The Embattled Amazon.")

Before 1492

Scientists have long thought the river basin's tropical soils were too acidic to grow anything but the hardiest varieties of manioc, a potatolike staple.

But over the past several decades, researchers have discovered tracts of productive terra preta—"dark earth." The human-made soil's chocolaty color contrasts sharply with the region's natural yellowish soils.

Research in the late 1980s was the first to show that charcoal made from slow burns of trees and woody waste is the key ingredient of terra preta.

With the increased level of agriculture made possible by terra preta, ancient Amazonians would have been able to live in one place for long periods of time, said geographer and anthropologist William Woods of the University of Kansas.
"As a result you get social stratification, hierarchy, intertwined settlement systems, very large scale," added Woods, who studies ancient Amazonian settlements.

"And then," he said, "1492 happens." The arrival of Europeans brought disease and warfare that obliterated the ancient Amazonian civilizations and sent the few survivors deep into the rain forest to live as hunter-gatherers.

"It completely changed their way of living," Woods said.

Magic Soil?

Today scientists are racing to tease apart the terra-preta recipe. The special soil has been touted as a way to restore more sustainable farming to the Amazon, feed the world's hungry, and combat global warming.

The terra-preta charcoal, called biochar, attracts certain fungi and microorganisms.

Those tiny life-forms allow the charcoal to absorb and retain nutrients that keep the soil fertile for hundreds of years, said Woods, whose team is among a few trying to identify the crucial microorganisms.

"The materials that go into the terra preta are just part of the story. The living member of it is much more," he said.

For one thing, the microorganisms break up the charcoal into smaller pieces, creating more surface area for nutrients to cling to, Woods said.

Anti-Global-Warming Weapon?

Soil scientist Johannes Lehmann of Cornell University is also racing to recreate terra preta.

The Amazonian dark soils, he said, are hundreds to thousands of years old, yet to this day they retain their nutrients and carbons, which are held mainly by the charcoal.

This suggests that adding biochar could help other regions of the world with acidic soils to increase agricultural yields.

Plus, Lehmann said, biochar could help reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere from the burning of wild lands to create new farm fields. (Learn how greenhouse gas emissions may worsen global warming.)

For example, specialized power plants could char agricultural wastes to generate electricity.

The process would "lock" much carbon that would have otherwise escaped into the atmosphere in the biochar. The biochar could then be put underground, in a new form of terra preta, thereby sequestering the carbon for centuries, Lehmann suggests.

Current Amazonian farming relies heavily on slash-and-burn agriculture—razing forests, then burning all of what's left.

By reverting to the ancient slash-and-char method—burning slowly and then mixing the charcoal into the soil—Amazonian carbon dioxide emissions could be cut nearly in half, according to Woods, of the University of Kansas.

With slash-and-burn, he noted, 95 percent of the carbon stored in a tree is emitted to the atmosphere. Slash-and-char emits about 50 percent, he said.

"The rest is put into different forms of black carbon, most of which are chemically inert for long periods of time—thousands of years."

In addition, the technique would allow many farmers to stay sedentary, Woods said.

Because the soil would apparently remain fertile for centuries, "they don't have to cut down the forest constantly and send it up into the atmosphere," he said.

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I learned of it only this week... although I had heard the term previously. I studied internationally at University level tropical forest ecology/soils etc., Slash & burn was almost ALWAYS considered "bad" due to rainfall washing away fertility etc. Deliberate cool charring was never discussed in forest ecology classes with regard to replanting, the focus was more on the forest canopy rather than the soil quality. That was a big omission, but typical of industrial timber/pulp production's effects on Forestry profession.

Inland Australian aboriginal term for fire: Kambo. Notice similarity to African word Jambo = greet/meet/mate/border/edge, and the Mbuti pygmy word for impenetrable thicket njama and Mbuti apa = fire, Ainu(Japan) ape = fire and Malay api = fire, and Nanai (Siberia) amba = orange/tiger and English ember/amber.

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Australian Aboriginal words

cf dog gudaga (Mbabaram) vs Yeeli & Eli (cf ari/elo=yellow dog/kelev)
cf fire Kambo
[* The vowels marked with a grave accent are long, those with an acute are short.]

Thursday, April 2, 2015

A dream, a paleo-poem

Asleep, last night, a dream occurred... 
resulting in this roughly drafted Paleo- poesis:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -

Laetoli songline
A mother walking, calmly, deliberately
a babe carried, not cradled in arm (suckling)

not in a sling (Khoisan: leather sling)
not in squared cloth wrap (Malay, Bantu)
not in net bag (Papuan) or back basket (Hmong)
not in papoose on cradle board(AmerInd)
as used on far future group treks
but She walked alone upright on two lower limbs
not low down on four with a "monkey" on her back

her babe sitting upright, bottom supported on arm,
babes' arms wrapped round her neck
as if climbing a palm tree

babes' mouth resting on mother's shoulder
babes' eyes looking behind

two eyes in front, two eyes in back 
and watched by antelope and fowl
they seemed a two-headed monster,
a bipedal version of
Dr. Doolittle's push-me pull-you 
able to see as well the tracks of the past
as the unpressed trail before her;
the mothers' gait a normal pace,
not too slow, not running, gentle rocking
in between tiptoeing and striding
relaxes her babe, no cries, awake,
aware, toothless yet fearless 
mother's melody synchronized
timed to shared breathing, hearts' beats
and unconscious swinging of footpads
babes' eyes open wide, sees something
moving behind them
mumbles "mmmaauu  mmaauu"
mother responds intuitively
"mmaauu mmaauu"? singing it
Xyambwa, the sabertooth cat,
goes still, unbreathing, confused
unable to see the normal attack zone,
the prey's rear and fly-swatting tail, 
Xyambwa can't attack the face,
a predator's code deeply embedded
a lunge from behind, claws to rip
a swipe at a tendon to prevent escape
a gripping noose round the neck 
with powerful jaws that clamp tight. 
But this one has no tail behind,
only eyes.
So Xyambwa waits and rests.
And Lucy walks onward towards
a mound of stone by a shallow pool...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
note: poesis(Greek) poetry of creation aka songline/dreamtrack/totemblem /poem
note: melody (melos(Greek): limbs)
note: mau (rimau(Malay): tiger, mao (Japanese) cat, simba(Swahili) lion, mbube(Zulu) lion

Monday, December 22, 2014

linguistic sharing

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Punt pole - dog/horse yoke - coracle paddle

have you seen these strange paddles anywhere else? are they inverted shepherd's staffs? I think they might derived from ancient dog-yokes.
010.jpg a Kufa Laden With Stones, and Manned by A Crew Of Four Men.
     Drawn by Faucher-Gudin, from a bas-relief at Koyunjik.
     Behind the kufa may be seen a fisherman seated astride on
     an inflated skin with his fish-basket attached to his neck.
"He split it in two as one does a fish for drying; then he hung up one of the halves on high, which became the heavens; the other half he spread out under his feet to form the earth, and made the universe such as men have since known it. As in Egypt, the world was a kind of enclosed chamber balanced on the bosom of the eternal waters.* The earth, which forms the lower part of it, or floor, is something like an overturned boat in appearance, and hollow underneath, not like one of the narrow skiffs in use among other races, but a kufa, or kind of semicircular boat such as the tribes of the Lower Euphrates have made use of from earliest antiquity down to our own times."
Assyrian coracle carrying a chariot
compare to Tibetan horse lassos at other post:
Tibetan high plains: Khampa-Tsaaten horsemen use poles with ropes/loops to yoke/lasso horses...
perhaps from earlier dog/horse/deer hooked (crook/collar/corral/kraal) punt pole to pull bowlboat in deep water... khampa ~ xyambua-tlaya ~ champa
similar to tigris coracle paddles
Khampa horseman in Kham region near Tibet

Tsaatan horsemen looping/yoking a horse

Thursday, August 15, 2013

Phu Quoc = Pulku(ph) = Pull Cup = Pickup Truck

  1. First domestic dogs, Ridgebacks,  were naturally inbred naive native island wolves of Phu Quoc Island.
  2. Phuquoc = pulku (dogsled/boat of EurAsia used in transport long before horse/ox)
    phuquoc/pulku/kupha/parical = pulled cup, bowlboat, coracle, komatim, tobogan

Oldest known temple on Earth is attributed to dog. Dog Star, Sirius, was seen at Gobekli Tepe. Note vocal similarity to Syria/Assyria/Ashur/Suriya(Sun in Hindi)/Hurrians. The circular walls may have symbolized cup/bowl/barge/bark boats, the small T pillars may have supported dome caps (copa, kippah(Hebrew skull cap). See my older post on Stonehenge, Gobleke tepe and the Antikthera mechanism regarding a possible chronological/cyclo(ck)/calender function. My research indicates that West Asian, Middle Eastern, and African regions had a brotherhood/priesthood caste of waterway controllers (canals, ferryboats, bridges) that collected tolls/tithes/taxes/tariffs (Pharaoh Queen Hatsheput referred to them as parasitical middlemen and bypassed them by sending expeditions directly through the Red Sea to Punt). The Euphrates River (earlier Qupharites) seems to have been named in relation to this (Pharisee, Horite, Harwa) caste, as can be seen by the following words:  (Q)upha, Pharisee, Farsi, Parsee, freight, rate, piracy, conspiracy, que, Horus,  ari,  etc.). Note that ridgeback dogs (Ari) were bred to become boat-sled pulling dogs (TSM Tx(u)em/Tesem, SLK Tslu(e)ki/Saluki) long before long paddles and keeled sailboats evolved (pariah, patriarch, ferry, tariff derived from "ari").

  (Note: Alice Linsley at Biblical Anthropology has in-depth studies of Horites caste).

Sirius worship
    World's oldest temple built to worship the dog star
    Pillars at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey seem to align with the rising of Sirius, hinting that the bright star may have triggered a frenzy of religious construction
    Sirius worship
    Image 2 of 2
    Available thumbnails
    The original star sign? <i>(Image: Vincent J. Musi/ National Geographic Stock)</i>Sirius worship

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Wednesday, June 12, 2013


Chaldeans, e.g., Atlacatl(Aztec nauhuatl language)=water bodies, Sea people, sailors;
Isaias (Isaiah) 43:14
... the Chaldeans glorying in their ships.
Chaldia (north - Caucasus/Black Sea/Armenia) Ur-Artu = Ur-Halde(God)?
& Chaldea (south - Assyria to Babylon to Ur)
Did the Lateen sail & keeled ships (decked fishing houseboats) develop in the highland windswept seas of Armenia, and then move through the Indian Ocean towards Korea, sailed by
Sea Peoples: west of Malaya: Moken;
Sea Peoples: east of Malaya: Bajau/Sama/Sinama of So. China/Sulu Sea[~ Tihama of Red Sea]
Before splitting, Moken = Bajau, so called Mboakja/Mbuatlya, + Shams(sun) seek = Xambuatlya
Xambuatlaya = Chaldyatl or Atlacatl?
Moken x Bajau = Mboakja (B/Paekje(Korean founders of Japan = Yayoi), Boati, XyaMbuatl [Xyam = sunbowl/solar disk/bark eg Shamash/Shams sun symbol of justice/balance/ballast] Bajau Laut: the ancestors (mag’mbo’) cf ebu gogo(Flores) abu/ibu/ebu(Malay) Sama/Sinam = Bajau/Badjao(east of borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi in Sulu Sea) ~ Moken(west of Malaya in Andaman Sea) Tribes of sea going Austronesian people, living in houseboats or in stilt houses along shores around island South East Asia... Xyambuatlaya/sinambajau Deya/muaken(aya) kaumansama: The idea from my understanding is that once a year the mbo’ require a sacrifice that involves returning to the land you were born and offering a financial offering that is usually dropped in the ocean. Returning to the land you were born would make sense along the lines that it is the place where your placenta was disposed of. Sama Deya [land dayak?] according to my wife would be horrified at the idea of putting the placenta in the ocean. For them it has to be buried Sinama or Sama or Bajau

Word List of Sinama:

Sasak: fence [Sakai (Mal. asli tribe), Sasak (Indo. tribe), Rampasasa(Flores descendants of Ebu Gogo]

Pala'u: boat dweller [Mal. perahu: boat; Egyptian: pharaoh?] Luwa'an: outsider

ka'a(m)(Sinama): you(English) awak/enkau/kamu/anda/saudarai(Malay) ikaw/ka/kayo(Tagalog-Phil.)

aku(S):I(E) aku/saya(M) ako(T)

sai(S) who(E) siapa(M) sino(T)

ai(S) what(E) apa(M) ano(T)

aheka(S) many(E) banyak(M) marami

(T) daing(S) fish(E) ikan(M) isda

(T) ero’(S) dog(E) anjing, asu, kuyuk(M)

 aso(T) kutu louse kutu kuto sowa
snake ular ahas/sawa
kalog worm cacing/ulat uod/bulati

kayu tree pokok/pohon puno/punung-kahoy talun forest hutan/rimba gubat batang stick batang patpat

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

Tail-holding propulsion

"This is a film of a girl raised by bushmen, showing her toying with wild lions and cheetahs." Heather Sweet at AAT


Yes, I have conjectured that early H sapiens used the islanded Phu Quoc ridgeback dog (derived from the Asian wolf) to pull their bowl boat coracles in water too deep for their punt poles, first by holding the tail, later by yoking them with a leash attached to a pole in the same manner as deer/horses etc. were restrained as part of hunt-herd pre-domestication (see photos in previous post).

Thursday, April 18, 2013


Interesting linguistic links indicate early dog-horse semi-domestication Xyambuatlaya/Xambotlaya/Khambodiya/Siam-Athalaya/Khan+/Kampong(ma)laya/kampot/kamchatka/Bimbetke/Bimbache(Can Isle Hierra)/Himba(ghee hair matriarch, W Africa cattle herders)/Himalaya-Tibet/Thimbu(Bhutan river-capital) Biscayne/Vizcainya/ cave of Askondo (← aitz-ondo = (Basque) near the rock) 25ka red-painting of horse//Sunduki (black mountain, ideal plains-herd-hunt hill-top mesa (atalaya=watchtower/castlemount) Khakassia, Altai) 16ka white-carving of horse (Altaic people hut tipi-shaped ayyal (hex pyramid wood vs cf urt (tipi-yurt) of nomadic Tsatan people), sunduki/askondo/saluki/swat/semliki/baluchi Saluki (Pharaoh doggy)/Xolo-itzcuintli (/ʃoʊloʊ.iːtsˈkwiːntli/ SHOH-loh-eets-KWEENT-lee) Mex hairless jungle dog;Tepeizeuintli dingo = anjing(Mal) + gou(Ch) = anjingo... saluki/swatluki/xmuatluhi suatluki ~ semliki|||shamuatliki ~ shambuatlaya(molimoli/muatslimuatsli - askundwoki, swantluhi, sholocuintzli) Beleuka Altai(Rus white mtns?) baluchistan/Beluga(white)/luci-(light); lyse(loosen, untie/split); lykos(Grk wolf/lobo, lupus) byeluka(Rus white vs Rus black cher-/schwartz vs beltz(basque black, Malay gelap dark, bakar char)) yam/yaw: luba - bantu tribe south congo//lu - tai tribe in SW Yunnan//luo - Nilotic tribe pastoral//luorawetlan[loo-awr-uh-vet-luhn, lwawr-] - NE Siberia Chukchi/Koryak/kamchadal lang (proper man)//lubra - native name in Tasmania & Aust aborig girl-woman//bemba - bantu tribe Rhodesia, Afr (bembantu/bembache/bambuti)//belone (Grk) needle (balloon/balleen?) Nice post about the Sama and their practices with the placenta. Though I’ve lived and worked with Sama for quite sometime, I still admit to understanding little about their practices that involve the ancestors (mag’mbo’). I was in a discussion about it once though where they were connecting the placenta with the ancestors that they revere. The idea from my understanding is that once a year the mbo’ require a sacrifice that involves returning to the land you were born and offering a financial offering that is usually dropped in the ocean. Returning to the land you were born would make sense along the lines that it is the place where your placenta was disposed of. Sama Deya according to my wife would be horrified at the idea of putting the placenta in the ocean. For them it has to be buried, but it is definitely clear that in the Sama worldview much importance is put on the placenta and its connection to the spirit world. March 15, 2013 at 7:23 am Reply • Erik Abrahamsson Hi, thanks for you comment! Yes, the placenta plays an important role in Sama cosmology, throughout Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia … In Wakatobi I met the translator of the movie “The Mirror Never Lies”, a Sama man called Sadar, and he told me that it is still practise to put the placenta into the ocean after giving birth – and this is part of a ritual (the word “thrown” is probably wrong in this context, it should rather be “put into the ocean”). The practice to throw the placenta into the sea might be foreign for most Sama in Malaysia and Philippines, but we must keep in mind that the Sama group in southern Indonesia has been separated from their northern relatives for at least 100 years. Hence, it is not surprising that some elements in their belief systems are partly different. misogi(J)=ceremony of purification(in a river), e.g, the river Styx=Chiconauhpan(N)=river of the 9 vados/wadings[vase/vessel/punt~feet/punchwater] with boatman who rows one across to Mictlan), michimichi(J)=on one's way, as one goes along, all the way, e.g., one walks to Mictlan after the river crossing in company of a brown Xoloitcuintli[saluki/sh-(ua/oi)(t)luk(u) (earth/land) = tli/chi Mazatl(N/7)=deer,=matou(J)=wrap, wear, put on (matou~kudu(antelope)(fishbaskettrap)(coracle) cf enduerre (Latin) put on Austere = (Malay) haus: thirst balteus (grk) belt/girdle, (belt also beat related to bat/pukul/pugil/peal?) sith(Scot)=cú sith=cueitl(N)=skirt/dog=fairy cur/burial mound dog. ah, yes, Síle na gCioc (Irish)=Xilé na gCC(i)[tletl] 45k bce-10k bce, when we all were deer tribes following=Xolotl(N)=dogging Tlaloc Tesem(Egypt) =tececemelti(Nauatl)=funny, amenable, recreative, who likes people,= cecemetlia(N/freq.)=cemeltia(N)=play with someone, give them pleasure,= cemelli(N)=pleasure, happiness,=cemelle(N/adj/adv)before negative, e.g., aic cemelle(N)=with happiness, tranquility, lit., not alone,=ceme(N)= plural of ce(N)=one, e.g., cea(N)=not one,=say(E)=de-s/cea-r=desear(sp)= desire(E)=decir(sp),=Ce(r)nechi(Malta/Fra Abela, 1647)=Kelb-tal-Fenek, Pharoah hound of Malta,=Cirneco dell'Etna(Sicily)=Tsm/Tesem(Egypt)=first Pharoah dog, comestible, relieved as Pharoah dog by Saluki sight hound= Alco(N)=Techichi(N)=rock dog,=Tesem(Egypt)=Anubis(Egypt)=Xolotl(N)= Evening star, twin of Quetzalcoatl, son of wind weaver Venus shuttle/ xiotl(N)star, Ehecatl(N/2 Tonalamatl)/Hecate, Tobacco Deity of Mexico, and the Fool=Xolo=follow in Tarot=Taroc/Tarocco(Ital)=Tlaloc, rain Deity of Nomad Deer Age, 45k BCE-10k BCE, paired with St. Michael=Miquiztli(N/6 Tonalamatl)=Death Lord of dogs, and finally, the Devil. ...Abuwtiyuw/Abutiu(Egypt)=royal guard dog of the 6th dynasty, 2345-2181BC, died before 2182, buried sumptuously at Giza Necropolis, =Abuw-=Tlapoalli -tiyuw(Egypt)=-tiuhtli(N)= Tlapo-tiuhtli(N)=counted/tlapoalli tiuhtli/as Lord, for he was embalmed and buried as a Noble" {tletl} Kamchadal language (ethnonym: Itelmen cf luorawetlan, The Itelmens use the self-designation itenme'n-itelmen which means 'an inhabitant of dry land, a human being') is distantly related to Chukchi and Koryak, and together they form the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family Kamchatka kamchadal/itelman(river settlement?) - labor was very clearly divided based on gender, though many tasks were shared. When fishing, the men and women paddled together, however only the men fished while the women performed all related tasks such as cleaning and drying the fish and collecting the eggs. In home construction, men performed all the wood work, digging and carpentry while the women performed the task of thatching the straw roof and cutting the straw with bone sickles made from bear shoulder blades. The women prepare the whole fish supply, except fermented fish and dog food, which is left to the men. The women perform all the tasks of gathering seeds, berries and fireweed, which is used as a type of tea. From grass they construct mats, bags, baskets and boxes for storage and transportation. Dog and reindeer skins are tanned, dyed and sewn into the various garments worn by men and women.[4]
Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam/Kublai Khan" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu
Khampa horseman in Kham region near Tibet

Tsaatan horsemen looping/yoking a horse

Tsaatan in front of urt (tripod-based tipi of skins, felt or birch bark)

A Tsaatan woman (also shaman) milking reindeer, note very small nose and large cheekbones
This photo of an Apatani women from India shows her tribal nose-plugs and tattoo, her epicanthic eyelids rise to her forehead [All photos from Tribal Asia, excellent book on Asian tribal traditions]

Xambotlaya/Ksyambodlia/Khampot/Thimbu/Himbalaya... Atalaya (Sp): watchtower Bones from about 1900 to 1700 B.C.—more than a millennium later than those examined by Kenoyer—make it clear that at least some Harappan residents were subjected to savage violence. The skull of a child between four and six years old was cracked and crushed by blows from a club-like weapon. An adult woman was beaten so badly—with extreme force, according to researchers—that her skull caved in. A middle-aged man had a broken nose as well as damage to his forehead inflicted by a sharp-edged, heavy implement. Mace wielding horsemen or road accident with horse carts? Siberia 3.5ma warmer, forested, no ice cap