Sunday, April 12, 2015

Fire, Terra Preta = charcoal soil - Forest Mgmt.

Rainforest soils tend to be very poor, most of the minerals are in the plants, not underground.

note: xmbotl = smolder/smokey/mo-sky/mosquito
- - -
ref. (Ecology book)
The next species

I just read that Amazon rainforest natives traditionally used a unique form of slash & burn farming, cutting small openings first to semi-dry the damp understory, then burned smoldering low fires, resulting in a partially charred ground layer this greatly enriched the impoverished acidic rainforest soil, because it left a layer of organic/fertile Terra Preta = black charcoal soil

this is very different from the usual modern method of slash & burn using chainsaws to remove the high-value trees and much of the canopy then sun dry the soil and then light hot fires to burn off all the vegetation leaving an ASH layer which is mineral-rich but soon washes away leaving sunbaked crusty soil.

I had never heard of the Terra Preta method before, some rainforest farmers do this repeatedly producing soils richer than Kansas topsoil! This is excellent forage/gather/garden management of rainforests, and I wonder if it is practiced elsewhere. I was trained to view all slash & burn (swidden) agriculture negatively, (due to often excessive erosion of topsoil) so I have to revise my views on it.

- - -
Note from the lioness, at Egyptsearch:
wikipedia has a long description of Terra Preta


All Slash and Burn techniques are not the same, thanks for showing us this





Superdirt Made Lost Amazon Cities Possible?
John Roach
for National Geographic News
November 19, 2008
Centuries-old European explorers' tales of lost cities in the Amazon have long been dismissed by scholars, in part because the region is too infertile to feed a sprawling civilization.

But new discoveries support the idea of an ancient Amazonian urban network—and ingeniously engineered soil may have made it all possible.

Now scientists are trying to recreate the recipe for the apparently human-made supersoil, which still covers up to 10 percent of the Amazon Basin. Key ingredients included of dirt, charcoal, pottery, human excrement and other waste.

If recreated, the engineered soil could feed the hungry and may even help fight global warming, experts suggest.

(Interactive map: "The Embattled Amazon.")

Before 1492

Scientists have long thought the river basin's tropical soils were too acidic to grow anything but the hardiest varieties of manioc, a potatolike staple.

But over the past several decades, researchers have discovered tracts of productive terra preta—"dark earth." The human-made soil's chocolaty color contrasts sharply with the region's natural yellowish soils.

Research in the late 1980s was the first to show that charcoal made from slow burns of trees and woody waste is the key ingredient of terra preta.

With the increased level of agriculture made possible by terra preta, ancient Amazonians would have been able to live in one place for long periods of time, said geographer and anthropologist William Woods of the University of Kansas.
"As a result you get social stratification, hierarchy, intertwined settlement systems, very large scale," added Woods, who studies ancient Amazonian settlements.

"And then," he said, "1492 happens." The arrival of Europeans brought disease and warfare that obliterated the ancient Amazonian civilizations and sent the few survivors deep into the rain forest to live as hunter-gatherers.

"It completely changed their way of living," Woods said.

Magic Soil?

Today scientists are racing to tease apart the terra-preta recipe. The special soil has been touted as a way to restore more sustainable farming to the Amazon, feed the world's hungry, and combat global warming.

The terra-preta charcoal, called biochar, attracts certain fungi and microorganisms.

Those tiny life-forms allow the charcoal to absorb and retain nutrients that keep the soil fertile for hundreds of years, said Woods, whose team is among a few trying to identify the crucial microorganisms.

"The materials that go into the terra preta are just part of the story. The living member of it is much more," he said.

For one thing, the microorganisms break up the charcoal into smaller pieces, creating more surface area for nutrients to cling to, Woods said.

Anti-Global-Warming Weapon?

Soil scientist Johannes Lehmann of Cornell University is also racing to recreate terra preta.

The Amazonian dark soils, he said, are hundreds to thousands of years old, yet to this day they retain their nutrients and carbons, which are held mainly by the charcoal.

This suggests that adding biochar could help other regions of the world with acidic soils to increase agricultural yields.

Plus, Lehmann said, biochar could help reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere from the burning of wild lands to create new farm fields. (Learn how greenhouse gas emissions may worsen global warming.)

For example, specialized power plants could char agricultural wastes to generate electricity.

The process would "lock" much carbon that would have otherwise escaped into the atmosphere in the biochar. The biochar could then be put underground, in a new form of terra preta, thereby sequestering the carbon for centuries, Lehmann suggests.

Current Amazonian farming relies heavily on slash-and-burn agriculture—razing forests, then burning all of what's left.

By reverting to the ancient slash-and-char method—burning slowly and then mixing the charcoal into the soil—Amazonian carbon dioxide emissions could be cut nearly in half, according to Woods, of the University of Kansas.

With slash-and-burn, he noted, 95 percent of the carbon stored in a tree is emitted to the atmosphere. Slash-and-char emits about 50 percent, he said.

"The rest is put into different forms of black carbon, most of which are chemically inert for long periods of time—thousands of years."

In addition, the technique would allow many farmers to stay sedentary, Woods said.

Because the soil would apparently remain fertile for centuries, "they don't have to cut down the forest constantly and send it up into the atmosphere," he said.

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I learned of it only this week... although I had heard the term previously. I studied internationally at University level tropical forest ecology/soils etc., Slash & burn was almost ALWAYS considered "bad" due to rainfall washing away fertility etc. Deliberate cool charring was never discussed in forest ecology classes with regard to replanting, the focus was more on the forest canopy rather than the soil quality. That was a big omission, but typical of industrial timber/pulp production's effects on Forestry profession.

Inland Australian aboriginal term for fire: Kambo. Notice similarity to African word Jambo = greet/meet/mate/border/edge, and the Mbuti pygmy word for impenetrable thicket njama and Mbuti apa = fire, Ainu(Japan) ape = fire and Malay api = fire, and Nanai (Siberia) amba = orange/tiger and English ember/amber.

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Australian Aboriginal words

cf dog gudaga (Mbabaram) vs Yeeli & Eli (cf ari/elo=yellow dog/kelev)
cf fire Kambo
[* The vowels marked with a grave accent are long, those with an acute are short.]

Thursday, April 2, 2015

A dream, a paleo-poem

Asleep, last night, a dream occurred... 
resulting in this roughly drafted Paleo- poesis:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -

Laetoli songline
A mother walking, calmly, deliberately
a babe carried, not cradled in arm (suckling)

not in a sling (Khoisan: leather sling)
not in squared cloth wrap (Malay, Bantu)
not in net bag (Papuan) or back basket (Hmong)
not in papoose on cradle board(AmerInd)
as used on far future group treks
but She walked alone upright on two lower limbs
not low down on four with a "monkey" on her back

her babe sitting upright, bottom supported on arm,
babes' arms wrapped round her neck
as if climbing a palm tree

babes' mouth resting on mother's shoulder
babes' eyes looking behind

two eyes in front, two eyes in back 
and watched by antelope and fowl
they seemed a two-headed monster,
a bipedal version of
Dr. Doolittle's push-me pull-you 
able to see as well the tracks of the past
as the unpressed trail before her;
the mothers' gait a normal pace,
not too slow, not running, gentle rocking
in between tiptoeing and striding
relaxes her babe, no cries, awake,
aware, toothless yet fearless 
mother's melody synchronized
timed to shared breathing, hearts' beats
and unconscious swinging of footpads
babes' eyes open wide, sees something
moving behind them
mumbles "mmmaauu  mmaauu"
mother responds intuitively
"mmaauu mmaauu"? singing it
Xyambwa, the sabertooth cat,
goes still, unbreathing, confused
unable to see the normal attack zone,
the prey's rear and fly-swatting tail, 
Xyambwa can't attack the face,
a predator's code deeply embedded
a lunge from behind, claws to rip
a swipe at a tendon to prevent escape
a gripping noose round the neck 
with powerful jaws that clamp tight. 
But this one has no tail behind,
only eyes.
So Xyambwa waits and rests.
And Lucy walks onward towards
a mound of stone by a shallow pool...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
note: poesis(Greek) poetry of creation aka songline/dreamtrack/totemblem /poem
note: melody (melos(Greek): limbs)
note: mau (rimau(Malay): tiger, mao (Japanese) cat, simba(Swahili) lion, mbube(Zulu) lion

Monday, December 22, 2014

linguistic sharing

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Punt pole - dog/horse yoke - coracle paddle

have you seen these strange paddles anywhere else? are they inverted shepherd's staffs? I think they might derived from ancient dog-yokes.
010.jpg a Kufa Laden With Stones, and Manned by A Crew Of Four Men.
     Drawn by Faucher-Gudin, from a bas-relief at Koyunjik.
     Behind the kufa may be seen a fisherman seated astride on
     an inflated skin with his fish-basket attached to his neck.
"He split it in two as one does a fish for drying; then he hung up one of the halves on high, which became the heavens; the other half he spread out under his feet to form the earth, and made the universe such as men have since known it. As in Egypt, the world was a kind of enclosed chamber balanced on the bosom of the eternal waters.* The earth, which forms the lower part of it, or floor, is something like an overturned boat in appearance, and hollow underneath, not like one of the narrow skiffs in use among other races, but a kufa, or kind of semicircular boat such as the tribes of the Lower Euphrates have made use of from earliest antiquity down to our own times."
Assyrian coracle carrying a chariot
compare to Tibetan horse lassos at other post:
Tibetan high plains: Khampa-Tsaaten horsemen use poles with ropes/loops to yoke/lasso horses...
perhaps from earlier dog/horse/deer hooked (crook/collar/corral/kraal) punt pole to pull bowlboat in deep water... khampa ~ xyambua-tlaya ~ champa
similar to tigris coracle paddles
Khampa horseman in Kham region near Tibet

Tsaatan horsemen looping/yoking a horse

Thursday, August 15, 2013

Phu Quoc = Pulku(ph) = Pull Cup = Pickup Truck

  1. First domestic dogs, Ridgebacks,  were naturally inbred naive native island wolves of Phu Quoc Island.
  2. Phuquoc = pulku (dogsled/boat of EurAsia used in transport long before horse/ox)
    phuquoc/pulku/kupha/parical = pulled cup, bowlboat, coracle, komatim, tobogan

Oldest known temple on Earth is attributed to dog. Dog Star, Sirius, was seen at Gobekli Tepe. Note vocal similarity to Syria/Assyria/Ashur/Suriya(Sun in Hindi)/Hurrians. The circular walls may have symbolized cup/bowl/barge/bark boats, the small T pillars may have supported dome caps (copa, kippah(Hebrew skull cap). See my older post on Stonehenge, Gobleke tepe and the Antikthera mechanism regarding a possible chronological/cyclo(ck)/calender function. My research indicates that West Asian, Middle Eastern, and African regions had a brotherhood/priesthood caste of waterway controllers (canals, ferryboats, bridges) that collected tolls/tithes/taxes/tariffs (Pharaoh Queen Hatsheput referred to them as parasitical middlemen and bypassed them by sending expeditions directly through the Red Sea to Punt). The Euphrates River (earlier Qupharites) seems to have been named in relation to this (Pharisee, Horite, Harwa) caste, as can be seen by the following words:  (Q)upha, Pharisee, Farsi, Parsee, freight, rate, piracy, conspiracy, que, Horus,  ari,  etc.). Note that ridgeback dogs (Ari) were bred to become boat-sled pulling dogs (TSM Tx(u)em/Tesem, SLK Tslu(e)ki/Saluki) long before long paddles and keeled sailboats evolved (pariah, patriarch, ferry, tariff derived from "ari").

  (Note: Alice Linsley at Biblical Anthropology has in-depth studies of Horites caste).

Sirius worship
    World's oldest temple built to worship the dog star
    Pillars at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey seem to align with the rising of Sirius, hinting that the bright star may have triggered a frenzy of religious construction
    Sirius worship
    Image 2 of 2
    Available thumbnails
    The original star sign? <i>(Image: Vincent J. Musi/ National Geographic Stock)</i>Sirius worship

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Wednesday, June 12, 2013


Chaldeans, e.g., Atlacatl(Aztec nauhuatl language)=water bodies, Sea people, sailors;
Isaias (Isaiah) 43:14
... the Chaldeans glorying in their ships.
Chaldia (north - Caucasus/Black Sea/Armenia) Ur-Artu = Ur-Halde(God)?
& Chaldea (south - Assyria to Babylon to Ur)
Did the Lateen sail & keeled ships (decked fishing houseboats) develop in the highland windswept seas of Armenia, and then move through the Indian Ocean towards Korea, sailed by
Sea Peoples: west of Malaya: Moken;
Sea Peoples: east of Malaya: Bajau/Sama/Sinama of So. China/Sulu Sea[~ Tihama of Red Sea]
Before splitting, Moken = Bajau, so called Mboakja/Mbuatlya, + Shams(sun) seek = Xambuatlya
Xambuatlaya = Chaldyatl or Atlacatl?
Moken x Bajau = Mboakja (B/Paekje(Korean founders of Japan = Yayoi), Boati, XyaMbuatl [Xyam = sunbowl/solar disk/bark eg Shamash/Shams sun symbol of justice/balance/ballast] Bajau Laut: the ancestors (mag’mbo’) cf ebu gogo(Flores) abu/ibu/ebu(Malay) Sama/Sinam = Bajau/Badjao(east of borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi in Sulu Sea) ~ Moken(west of Malaya in Andaman Sea) Tribes of sea going Austronesian people, living in houseboats or in stilt houses along shores around island South East Asia... Xyambuatlaya/sinambajau Deya/muaken(aya) kaumansama: The idea from my understanding is that once a year the mbo’ require a sacrifice that involves returning to the land you were born and offering a financial offering that is usually dropped in the ocean. Returning to the land you were born would make sense along the lines that it is the place where your placenta was disposed of. Sama Deya [land dayak?] according to my wife would be horrified at the idea of putting the placenta in the ocean. For them it has to be buried Sinama or Sama or Bajau

Word List of Sinama:

Sasak: fence [Sakai (Mal. asli tribe), Sasak (Indo. tribe), Rampasasa(Flores descendants of Ebu Gogo]

Pala'u: boat dweller [Mal. perahu: boat; Egyptian: pharaoh?] Luwa'an: outsider

ka'a(m)(Sinama): you(English) awak/enkau/kamu/anda/saudarai(Malay) ikaw/ka/kayo(Tagalog-Phil.)

aku(S):I(E) aku/saya(M) ako(T)

sai(S) who(E) siapa(M) sino(T)

ai(S) what(E) apa(M) ano(T)

aheka(S) many(E) banyak(M) marami

(T) daing(S) fish(E) ikan(M) isda

(T) ero’(S) dog(E) anjing, asu, kuyuk(M)

 aso(T) kutu louse kutu kuto sowa
snake ular ahas/sawa
kalog worm cacing/ulat uod/bulati

kayu tree pokok/pohon puno/punung-kahoy talun forest hutan/rimba gubat batang stick batang patpat

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

Tail-holding propulsion

"This is a film of a girl raised by bushmen, showing her toying with wild lions and cheetahs." Heather Sweet at AAT


Yes, I have conjectured that early H sapiens used the islanded Phu Quoc ridgeback dog (derived from the Asian wolf) to pull their bowl boat coracles in water too deep for their punt poles, first by holding the tail, later by yoking them with a leash attached to a pole in the same manner as deer/horses etc. were restrained as part of hunt-herd pre-domestication (see photos in previous post).

Thursday, April 18, 2013


Interesting linguistic links indicate early dog-horse semi-domestication Xyambuatlaya/Xambotlaya/Khambodiya/Siam-Athalaya/Khan+/Kampong(ma)laya/kampot/kamchatka/Bimbetke/Bimbache(Can Isle Hierra)/Himba(ghee hair matriarch, W Africa cattle herders)/Himalaya-Tibet/Thimbu(Bhutan river-capital) Biscayne/Vizcainya/ cave of Askondo (← aitz-ondo = (Basque) near the rock) 25ka red-painting of horse//Sunduki (black mountain, ideal plains-herd-hunt hill-top mesa (atalaya=watchtower/castlemount) Khakassia, Altai) 16ka white-carving of horse (Altaic people hut tipi-shaped ayyal (hex pyramid wood vs cf urt (tipi-yurt) of nomadic Tsatan people), sunduki/askondo/saluki/swat/semliki/baluchi Saluki (Pharaoh doggy)/Xolo-itzcuintli (/ʃoʊloʊ.iːtsˈkwiːntli/ SHOH-loh-eets-KWEENT-lee) Mex hairless jungle dog;Tepeizeuintli dingo = anjing(Mal) + gou(Ch) = anjingo... saluki/swatluki/xmuatluhi suatluki ~ semliki|||shamuatliki ~ shambuatlaya(molimoli/muatslimuatsli - askundwoki, swantluhi, sholocuintzli) Beleuka Altai(Rus white mtns?) baluchistan/Beluga(white)/luci-(light); lyse(loosen, untie/split); lykos(Grk wolf/lobo, lupus) byeluka(Rus white vs Rus black cher-/schwartz vs beltz(basque black, Malay gelap dark, bakar char)) yam/yaw: luba - bantu tribe south congo//lu - tai tribe in SW Yunnan//luo - Nilotic tribe pastoral//luorawetlan[loo-awr-uh-vet-luhn, lwawr-] - NE Siberia Chukchi/Koryak/kamchadal lang (proper man)//lubra - native name in Tasmania & Aust aborig girl-woman//bemba - bantu tribe Rhodesia, Afr (bembantu/bembache/bambuti)//belone (Grk) needle (balloon/balleen?) Nice post about the Sama and their practices with the placenta. Though I’ve lived and worked with Sama for quite sometime, I still admit to understanding little about their practices that involve the ancestors (mag’mbo’). I was in a discussion about it once though where they were connecting the placenta with the ancestors that they revere. The idea from my understanding is that once a year the mbo’ require a sacrifice that involves returning to the land you were born and offering a financial offering that is usually dropped in the ocean. Returning to the land you were born would make sense along the lines that it is the place where your placenta was disposed of. Sama Deya according to my wife would be horrified at the idea of putting the placenta in the ocean. For them it has to be buried, but it is definitely clear that in the Sama worldview much importance is put on the placenta and its connection to the spirit world. March 15, 2013 at 7:23 am Reply • Erik Abrahamsson Hi, thanks for you comment! Yes, the placenta plays an important role in Sama cosmology, throughout Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia … In Wakatobi I met the translator of the movie “The Mirror Never Lies”, a Sama man called Sadar, and he told me that it is still practise to put the placenta into the ocean after giving birth – and this is part of a ritual (the word “thrown” is probably wrong in this context, it should rather be “put into the ocean”). The practice to throw the placenta into the sea might be foreign for most Sama in Malaysia and Philippines, but we must keep in mind that the Sama group in southern Indonesia has been separated from their northern relatives for at least 100 years. Hence, it is not surprising that some elements in their belief systems are partly different. misogi(J)=ceremony of purification(in a river), e.g, the river Styx=Chiconauhpan(N)=river of the 9 vados/wadings[vase/vessel/punt~feet/punchwater] with boatman who rows one across to Mictlan), michimichi(J)=on one's way, as one goes along, all the way, e.g., one walks to Mictlan after the river crossing in company of a brown Xoloitcuintli[saluki/sh-(ua/oi)(t)luk(u) (earth/land) = tli/chi Mazatl(N/7)=deer,=matou(J)=wrap, wear, put on (matou~kudu(antelope)(fishbaskettrap)(coracle) cf enduerre (Latin) put on Austere = (Malay) haus: thirst balteus (grk) belt/girdle, (belt also beat related to bat/pukul/pugil/peal?) sith(Scot)=cú sith=cueitl(N)=skirt/dog=fairy cur/burial mound dog. ah, yes, Síle na gCioc (Irish)=Xilé na gCC(i)[tletl] 45k bce-10k bce, when we all were deer tribes following=Xolotl(N)=dogging Tlaloc Tesem(Egypt) =tececemelti(Nauatl)=funny, amenable, recreative, who likes people,= cecemetlia(N/freq.)=cemeltia(N)=play with someone, give them pleasure,= cemelli(N)=pleasure, happiness,=cemelle(N/adj/adv)before negative, e.g., aic cemelle(N)=with happiness, tranquility, lit., not alone,=ceme(N)= plural of ce(N)=one, e.g., cea(N)=not one,=say(E)=de-s/cea-r=desear(sp)= desire(E)=decir(sp),=Ce(r)nechi(Malta/Fra Abela, 1647)=Kelb-tal-Fenek, Pharoah hound of Malta,=Cirneco dell'Etna(Sicily)=Tsm/Tesem(Egypt)=first Pharoah dog, comestible, relieved as Pharoah dog by Saluki sight hound= Alco(N)=Techichi(N)=rock dog,=Tesem(Egypt)=Anubis(Egypt)=Xolotl(N)= Evening star, twin of Quetzalcoatl, son of wind weaver Venus shuttle/ xiotl(N)star, Ehecatl(N/2 Tonalamatl)/Hecate, Tobacco Deity of Mexico, and the Fool=Xolo=follow in Tarot=Taroc/Tarocco(Ital)=Tlaloc, rain Deity of Nomad Deer Age, 45k BCE-10k BCE, paired with St. Michael=Miquiztli(N/6 Tonalamatl)=Death Lord of dogs, and finally, the Devil. ...Abuwtiyuw/Abutiu(Egypt)=royal guard dog of the 6th dynasty, 2345-2181BC, died before 2182, buried sumptuously at Giza Necropolis, =Abuw-=Tlapoalli -tiyuw(Egypt)=-tiuhtli(N)= Tlapo-tiuhtli(N)=counted/tlapoalli tiuhtli/as Lord, for he was embalmed and buried as a Noble" {tletl} Kamchadal language (ethnonym: Itelmen cf luorawetlan, The Itelmens use the self-designation itenme'n-itelmen which means 'an inhabitant of dry land, a human being') is distantly related to Chukchi and Koryak, and together they form the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family Kamchatka kamchadal/itelman(river settlement?) - labor was very clearly divided based on gender, though many tasks were shared. When fishing, the men and women paddled together, however only the men fished while the women performed all related tasks such as cleaning and drying the fish and collecting the eggs. In home construction, men performed all the wood work, digging and carpentry while the women performed the task of thatching the straw roof and cutting the straw with bone sickles made from bear shoulder blades. The women prepare the whole fish supply, except fermented fish and dog food, which is left to the men. The women perform all the tasks of gathering seeds, berries and fireweed, which is used as a type of tea. From grass they construct mats, bags, baskets and boxes for storage and transportation. Dog and reindeer skins are tanned, dyed and sewn into the various garments worn by men and women.[4]
Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam/Kublai Khan" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu
Khampa horseman in Kham region near Tibet

Tsaatan horsemen looping/yoking a horse

Tsaatan in front of urt (tripod-based tipi of skins, felt or birch bark)

A Tsaatan woman (also shaman) milking reindeer, note very small nose and large cheekbones
This photo of an Apatani women from India shows her tribal nose-plugs and tattoo, her epicanthic eyelids rise to her forehead [All photos from Tribal Asia, excellent book on Asian tribal traditions]

Xambotlaya/Ksyambodlia/Khampot/Thimbu/Himbalaya... Atalaya (Sp): watchtower Bones from about 1900 to 1700 B.C.—more than a millennium later than those examined by Kenoyer—make it clear that at least some Harappan residents were subjected to savage violence. The skull of a child between four and six years old was cracked and crushed by blows from a club-like weapon. An adult woman was beaten so badly—with extreme force, according to researchers—that her skull caved in. A middle-aged man had a broken nose as well as damage to his forehead inflicted by a sharp-edged, heavy implement. Mace wielding horsemen or road accident with horse carts? Siberia 3.5ma warmer, forested, no ice cap

Thursday, March 28, 2013

Phu Quoc Island: bowl boats & 1st dog domestication

Earliest Human Y DNA: Mbo, Cameroon, Africa (Mbuti/mbi-aka/mbo-tswa-na)Bowl boat coracle - woven: Mbotai, Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam (bow/bowl/boat/baskettle)
Fire-Food: Xam- yam (nyummy), clam(ngulam), ham(pig+hound), shellfish(ketam), fish(ikan)

Earliest Human: fire spindrill (from Neanderthal) Xamax/Shamash (lamp/candle/Sumer sun god)
Xam-Mbo-Đằ-ya/Bách Việt (Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè)
Xam+Mbo+tl-ay-a: champa/china=xiongua/cambodia/thai=atalaya/malaya/himba=bimbache(CI)
Earliest dog domestication: Mbotai, Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam; Kampot, Cambodia
Earliest horse domestication: Botai, Caspian-Crimea, Ukraine
click to enlarge

Phu Quoc Ridgebacks

The Phu Quoc Dog is one of three rare dogs with a whorl on its back.
They are famous for hunting and protecting houses, for their friendship and loyalty to owners, and fearlessness against competitors.

  Another point of interest in Phú Quôc is the island's native dog; this dog was originally a wild animal and later trained as a hunting dog by local people. These days they are very domesticated and it's unusual to go anywhere on the island without seeing one of these dogs! These animals have unusually sharp teeth (as they tear their food when they eat it rather than bite) and have claws that over the years have been conditioned for catching their prey and are razor sharp. [Note: the hairless Chinese crested, chihuahua and Peruvian mohawk dogs have unusual teeth, possibly related to the EDAR mutation which causes more eccrine sweat glands, smaller breasts and reduced hair in humans, this might be selected for in starch-digestion amylase production (dogs and humans have greatly increased amylase capacity vs wolves and apes).

An older man on Phu Quoc named Sau Khuong says there were at least three kinds of Phu Quoc ridgebacks a century ago.

One was found in Cua Can, Ba Trai, and Dong Ba and was small, weighed 12-16kg, but was swift and skillful in finding and chasing prey. A second kind was commonly found in Bac Dao and weighed around 20kg. It could bring down large prey like deer and take on wild boars. The smallest was found in Suoi Tranh and Suoi Da.

“It was so small that it could not climb past a fallen trunk but possessed an excellent sense of smell and was ferocious,” Chin Cua Dinh, a hunter and an island native, says.

A pack of hunting dogs has three to six individuals each with different skills like scenting, biting, and chasing. They are usually named after their skills. Thus, when a hunter shouts “Bite it” or “Chase it,” the dog named Bite or Chase would do the job.

Since hunters prefer dogs with colors that could blend into the forest, brown, yellow, grey, and black were the favorites, and white and those with spots are not liked much. Those with dew claws – a vestigial digit on the feet of many mammals -- are not preferred either since they could easily get stuck while hunting.

The leader of a pack must be sensitive to scents in the air to identify prey while the rest are good at picking up scents from the soil. The former therefore have a deep philtrum, the cleft beneath the noses of most mammals while the latter have shallow clefts.

Tapering bodies, deep chests, and shoulders that are lower than their bottoms indicate endurance and animals with these features are ideal for the long chase. Those with straight and slim legs are considered fast.

Hunter Minh Dia says a dog with a well-proportioned ridge running from shoulder to waist is battle-hardened. He also claims it is only good if tails incline left in males and right in females.

A major risk for the purebred Phu Quoc ridgeback comes from the popularity of the Thai ridgeback since some breeders intentionally cross them. Now there are an estimated 800 dogs bred in this manner in Vietnam.

The VKA is considering a ban on Phu-Thai ridgebacks participating in dog shows in Vietnam to protect the purebred Phu Quoc dogs, VKA member Bui Quoc Viet says.

“What we need now is World Canine Organization recognition for a primitive purebred Phu Quoc ridgeback, not for a new race of ridgeback.”

Vietnam has applied to the FCI to register the dog as a “primitive type of hunting dog with a ridge on the back” and it is now under consideration.

Tuoi Tre/Thanh Nien

AT Communication
AT Communication

3W4JK Phu Quoc Island

3w4jk,phu quoc island
SP5APW will be active from Phu Quoc Island (IOTA AS-128) 7-12 March 2012 as 3W4JK
He will be active on 40-6m SSB , RTTY , PSK31
QSL via home call
Phu Quoc Island 3W4JK DX News

Phu Quoc Island 3W4JK

3w4jk , phu quoc island

Codan 2110M-B125 Military Base Radio

Codan 2110M-B125 Military Base Station

Phu Quoc Island Vietnam

Travel Wallpapers
Karte von | map of Vietnam

Are these bowl boats (Vietnamese: Thung Chai) masted for sails, parasols, nets or rudder oars? Note the red lights on top, probably for night fishing, including squid.

Phu Quoc island is mountainous within a fairly flat lowland region of the Tonle Sap lake and Mekong delta. Phu Quoc, known as Koh Tral by Cambodians (Cambodia is only 12-15 km away), is the largest island of Vietnam. Situated in the Gulf of Thailand, the island is part of Kiên Giang province.  Duong Dong, halfway up the western coast, is a pleasant, unremarkable seaport with several 'nuoc mam' (fish sauce) factories (and Dinh Cau, a temple to the Whale God, full of skeletons of whales and other marine mammals used by cult devotees). Kampot is just eastwards in mainland Cambodia also grows black pepper on its mountainsides.

Quoc means national, I haven't found what the meaning of Phu Quoc is.

Diving around Phu Quoc island: north end 10m deep, south end 40m deep

Gulf of Thailand: A semi-enclosed extension of the South China Sea, the Gulf of Thailand lies between the Malay Peninsula and Indochina. Its shallow waters are largely fed by fresh river water inflow, principally from the Chao Phraya River. This river input gives the surface waters a relatively low salinity, while salt water from the main part of the South China Sea only enters deep down, pooling in areas deeper than 160 ft (50 m). Coral reefs thrive in the warm water, and there is a strong tourist industry based around good dive sites, such as the island of Ko Samui. Mangrove forests provide a buffer between land and sea along much of the coast, offering a habitat to many marine organisms

21ka - 8ka  During the last Ice Age much of the Sunda Shelf of the South China Sea region was above sea level, with rainforest, wetlands and savanna: Indian wolf, genetically closest to dogs,  Coppinger: "My argument is that what domesticated—or tame—means is to be able to eat in the presence of human beings. That is the thing that wild wolves can't do."[15]

Phu Quoc dogs, being long islanded smallish Asian wolves lost some of their predatorial nature/fear (cf dodo bird) before being domesticated/domed by humans. Women made and owned the dome huts/boats, allowed a favored female dog (bitch) subordinate status (protector against rape/theft of food supply), male humans had to bring food to woman for status/sex/domeshelter, while male wolfdogs were excluded from the dome but favorites were allowed/fed around the area during bitch's estrus which selected for social control.  In Africa and west Asia/Europe, this changed, due to preferences of dogs especially for both bowl-boat/sled pulling and hunting, such as the "ari" Hottentot ridgeback hunting dog and Congo pygmy's basenji, these were sources of large/fierce northern dogs(mastiff/misatim~basenji/bay-bark+anjin/gou=dingo)

In 2008, re-examination of material excavated from Goyet Cave in Belgium in the late 19th century resulted in the identification of a 31,700 year old dog, a large and powerful animal who ate reindeer, musk oxen and horses. This dog was part of the Aurignacian culture that had produced the art in Chauvet Cave.[22][23]
In 2010, the remains of a 33,000 year old dog were found in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia.[24][25] DNA analysis published in 2013 affirmed that it was more closely related to modern dogs than to wolves.[26] In 2011, the skeleton of a 26,000 to 27,000 year old dog was found in the Czech Republic.
Check out the "Sa'Och Por" or "Samre Pear" Negrito people of Chanthaburi Thai/Cambodia, possibly link of bow/abu/boat/beo/port/board/Mbo/Botai/bolt/bury/body/potl


  1. ...part of the early slave trade, the Pear=Par(Fr)=pal(N)=(bound)for(market).
    Coatl(N/5 Tonalamatl))=coatl(N)=tool of copper
    with wodden handle; type of shovel or azadón(sp)=
    ...tok(P)=boat=potli(N),=toca(N)=to/our being/ca,=tloc(N)=beside,=dock/locate.
    ...khos(P)=charcoal(E)=kh/ch/Coatl(N/5 Tona).
    timaloa(N)=supperate(pun), e.g., boil&boil=
    ...khmuc(P)=die,=kh/k/ca muchi(N)=being all.
    ...ches(P)=deer,=ce(N)=one offering=uentli(N)=
    ciervo/cerf, but, chia/chie/ochix(N)=to wait
    for someone, e.g., oc xic-chia(N)=wait a bit.
    ...hauc(P)=die,=h/th/toca(N)=sow and bury, e.g.
    le tocó(sp)=it touched him.
    ...poul(P)=drunk,=poliuhqui(N)=pulque/polluted,and, potli(N)=pool(E).
    tleco(N)=to rise/leg. of unkn. origin says
    ...thuk/touk(P)=East(where Sun rises),=to/our
    being/ca, tonalli(N)=soul of our Universe.
    ...BeOThuk=be/peua Ollin Toca(N)=begins in
    the Holy East/Our Being, say the Toniit.
    tleco(N)=to rise/leg/location.
    ...toun(P)=egg,=Tonatiuh(N)=the yolk Sun.
    (N)=to know,=ma/oma(N)=hunt land/sea with net=
    ...jan(P)=gibbon,=yani(N)=pilgrim, uan(N)=
    relation(to be frank).
    ...hak(P)=give,=maca(N)=hand be,=h/th/t/tlaca=
    body, in Nauatl.
    ...tou(P)=go,=-to(N/verb declension=towards)=
    to go/ir(sp).
    ...ti(P)=hand=h/th/t/tlan d/tli=tlantli(N)=
    (E)=te(J)=hand,=aite(J)=mate/spouse, ai(J)=love/blue=matlalli(N)=netland.
    Pears speak SeaLang, shipped in by Japanese/
    Arab Sea people, cf., Cema Naga(Assam), who
    underwent similar pillage.

  2. ...Pearic:
    ...kantun(P)=rabbit,=ka/ca tonatiuh(N)=sun being
    ...kos(P)=hawk,=Cozcacuauhtli(N/16 Tona)=king
    ...chil(P)=heart/mind,=chilli(N)=red pepper.
    nami(J)=wave/billow,=-nami(J/sfx)=treat someone as one of the family.
    ...tao(P)=pod/ear,=tlaolli(N)=take corn off
    the cob,=tha(Otomitl Amerind=otome(J)=maiden)=
    ...rap(P)=wash,=r/tlapacatl(N)=lavar ropa(sp)/

  • "note eliding (l)of ko(l)ko, the k/g shift of ko(l)ko/go(l)go. .."

    pukul (Malay) beat (gong/clock)
    pulku (Lapp) boat (pulled sledboat)
    pulling makes path = direction
    punting/poking = suck(el)ing out/in, socket

    harpoon hook-barb + punt/spoon?


  • ...suck(E)=tzocatl(N)=sugar(E)=azucar(sp).
    ...poling(E)=each of 2 points in celestial/ocelot(N/14 Tonalamatl)=sphere,=potli(N)=
    pool/punt/pull/both forward and back, side to side,=

  • "...thim(P)=cook=icuci/cuxtia/ixca/oicac(N),=
    timaloa(N)=supperate(pun), e.g., boil&boil=

    Thimbu River, roiling whitewater to Bhutan
    Himba(ghee-jelled-greased hair)/Tibet(ghee-oiled bowlboat yakskin)/Himalaya(rim(e)-layered/land)

    "...ches(P)=deer,=ce(N)=one offering=uentli(N)=
    ciervo/cerf, but, chia/chie/ochix(N)=to wait
    for someone, e.g., oc xic-chia(N)=wait a bit. "

    ches, cf schield, wait at river (on shore or in bowlboat) for deer/horses to swim river, use punt-pole with end loop to slip over its head (but not strangle) cf lariat la riat/lasso/(Lhasa?)/toss(tos(P) head) (later cowboys on horses hand(h)eld rope "spoke"=punt, keeping a circle of rope spinning by partial twisting it in palm cf Chinese circle/wheel=gulu, net=gu; Malay 10 =se-pulu = punt + hoop = 1 + 0); pony-polo

    nami(J)=wave/billow,=-nami(J/sfx)=treat someone as one of the family"

    Namaqualand(Botswana) = Nagaland(Assam) = NamViet(old name)=Nam Yueh(Chin)~Yueh Zhi(PIE Toch?)
    Han/Xionghua vs Hun/Xiongnu


    suc = hair = fiber(hemp/kemp) of rope loop(cycle=socket) tossed/cassok-khazakh = Botai/XmBotlay/Khampa horse herders

    Kokonor: Kham homeland; Numerous rivers, including the Mekong, Yangtze, Yalong Jiang, and the Salween flow through Kham.!i=549014374&k=4r3nrL8!i=447036476&k=RcftrgR
    Bhotia people, Cham dances, Kham horsemen, turquoise
  •  Cham Island, offshore central Vietnam

  • Guanche (Canari island language), Dravidian/Cham-Xambotlaya:

    BimbacheA people from Hierro Vin-bach ("Land of the Brave")
    Canarias"Island of the Dogs" Cham-ari ("Island of Cham") 3
    Chenech (or Chinech or Achinech)Local name of TenerifeChe-nek ("Pure Land") 4
    Echeyde (Teyde)"The Luminous One"Ecch-eyd or Chey-ide ("The White (or Fiery or Shiny) Mountain")
    GomeraOne of the CanariesGomeda ("Fat Cattle") 5
    GuacimaraName of a royal princessKaci-mara ("Golden Beauty")
    Guanche(See note 6)Cham-che ("The Golden Heroes") 6
    3) Pliny, in his Natural History, affirms that the name of "Canaria" derives from the many dogs found on the island (Canis, in Latin). This is an exoterism, and the name indeed derives from that of Cham, the patriarch of the Chamites (or Ethiopians), the fallen ones. In reality, the word Cham means precisely the same as "Ethiopian" or "burnt-faces". The Dravidian etyms of the word Cham are highly enlightening. The word means both "artificer", "smith", "architect", as well as "fallen", destroyed", "dead", "terminated". Both in Dravida and in the Biblical tradition, the name of Cham is also interpreted as meaning "dog", "doggish".
    The suffix ari- of "Canary" means "island", "cliff", "rock", in Dravida, and implies the idea of a sunken land whose peaks remained above the water. Hence, the Canaries are the Island of the Artificers who engendered Creation; the Fallen Angels or Nephelim, who "fell" (or died or were exterminated) at the end of their era, becoming damned dogs. In other words, the Guanches are "the People of Cham" (Guan-che or Cham-che), an etym (etymology)not unrelated to that of "Dog" and to that of the Canaries. (See Note 6, below).
    No, canari from Cham ari from XamBa Ari (people dog, or people of the dog, = arian/ainu/arinu/kenari/canari)
    From German Dziebel's blog Anthropogeny: Dogs, yaks, people domesticationGokcumen et al. (2013) have identified a few interesting facts. First, contrary to the earlier accounts of “Neandertal admixture” in the human genome that failed to detect traces of it among African foragers, they found NE1 in 13% of their Mbuti Pygmy sample. This is precisely what out-of-America II predicts: modern humans with roots in a Eurasian hominin such as Neandertals or Denisovans colonized every remote corner of the world, including the African tropics. Second, they
    “found that variation within African NE1 haplotypes is significantly higher than variation within Asian and European NE1 haplotypes (p<10 sup="">−15

    )….”But despite the higher variation within African NE1 haplotypes, the frequency of those haplotypes are the highest outside of Africa and, especially in America. This means that diversity is no indication of a population’s age. Plain simple. It’s likely that it shows the relaxation of a selective constraint in this region and the corresponding increase in mutation rate, which is something to be expected from a regulatory gene. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) metrics seem to support this interpretation (Amerindians again not represented):
    “To understand the genomic composition upstream of the APOBEC3 locus, we first examined the phase I SNP data from the 1000 Genomes Project and identified an unusually strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) block spanning approximately 36 kb (NE1 locus, hg18 – chr22:37,600,063–37,636,026). This LD block is evident in Eurasian (CEU and CHB/JPT) populations but is absent in the Yoruban (YRI) population.”
    The increase of genetic diversity as a result of the relaxation of selective constraints is something that is well described for some of modern humans’ companion species such as domesticated dogs and domesticated yaks following the domestication. A similar process must have affected their owners, too.